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Research Papers

An Impact of Various Shroud Bleed Slot Configurations and Cavity Vanes on Compressor Map Width and the Inducer Flow Field

[+] Author and Article Information
Subenuka Sivagnanasundaram

e-mail: Ssivagnanasundaram01@qub.ac.uk

Stephen Spence

e-mail: s.w.spence@qub.ac.uk

Juliana Early

School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering,
Queen's University,
University Road,
Belfast BT7 1NN, UK

Bahram Nikpour

Cummins Turbo Technologies,
Huddersfield, UK

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute of ASME for publication in the Journal of Turbomachinery. Manuscript received September 20, 2011; final manuscript received November 26, 2011; published online June 3, 2013. Assoc. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Turbomach 135(4), 041003 (Jun 03, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: TURBO-11-1212; doi: 10.1115/1.4007513 History: Received September 20, 2011; Revised November 26, 2011

This paper describes an investigation of map width enhancement and a detailed analysis of the inducer flow field due to various bleed slot configurations and vanes in the annular cavity of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor. The compressor under investigation is used in a turbocharger application for a heavy duty diesel engine of approximately 400 hp. This investigation has been undertaken using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the full compressor stage, which includes a manual multiblock-structured grid generation method. The influence of the bleed slot flow on the inducer flow field at a range of operating conditions has been analyzed, highlighting the improvement in surge and choked flow capability. The impact of the bleed slot geometry variations and the inclusion of cavity vanes on the inlet incidence angle have been studied in detail by considering the swirl component introduced at the leading edge by the recirculating flow through the slot. Further, the overall stage efficiency and the nonuniform flow field at the inducer inlet have been also analyzed. The analysis revealed that increasing the slot width has increased the map width by about 17%. However, it has a small impact on the efficiency, due to the frictional and mixing losses. Moreover, adding vanes in the cavity improved the pressure ratio and compressor performance noticeably. A detail analysis of the compressor with cavity vanes has also been presented.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
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References

Fisher, F. B., 1988, Application of Map Width Enhancement Devices to Turbocharger Compressor Stage, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA.
Nikpour, B., 2004, “Turbocharger Compressor Flow Range Improvement for Future Heavy Duty Diesel Engines,” THIESEL 2004 Conference on Thermo- and Fluid Dynamic Processes in Diesel Engines, Valencia, Spain, September 7–10.
Hunziker, R., Dickmann, H. P., and Emmrich, R., 2001, “Numerical and Experimental Investigation of a Centrifugal Compressor With an Inducer Casing Bleed System,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A, 215(6), pp. 783–791. [CrossRef]
Ishida, M., Sakaguchi, D., and Ueki, H., 2006, “Effect of Pre-Whirl on Unstable Flow Suppression in a Centrifugal Impeller With Ring Groove Arrangement,” ASME Turbo Expo 2006, ASME Paper No. GT2006-90400. [CrossRef]
Zheng, X., Zhang, Y., Yang, M., Bamba, T., and Tamaki, H., 2010, “Stability Improvement of High-Pressure-Ratio Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor by Asymmetric Flow Control: Part II—Non-Axisymmetric Self Recirculation Casing Treatment,” ASME Turbo Expo 2010, Paper No. GT2010-22582. [CrossRef]
Yamaguchi, S., Yamaguchi, H., Goto, S., Nakao, H., and Nakamura, F., 2002, “The Development of Effective Casing Treatment for Turbocharger Compressor,” Proceedings of the 7th IMechE International Conference on Turbocharger and Turbocharging, London, May 14–15.
Jansen, W., Carter, A. F., and Swarden, M. C., 1980, “Improvements in Surge Margin for Centrifugal Compressors,” AGARD Conference Proceedings, Paper No. 282.
Macdougal, I., and Elder, R. L., 1982, “The Improvement of Operating Range in a Small, High Speed, Centrifugal Compressor Using Casing Treatment,” IMechE Conference on Turbochargers and Turbocharging, Paper No. C32/82.
Barton, M. T., Mansour, M. L., Liu, J. S., and Palmer, D. L., 2006, “Numerical Optimization of a Vaned Shroud Design for Increased Operability Margin in Modern Centrifugal Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 128, pp. 627–631. [CrossRef]
Kim, Y., Engeda, A., Aungier, R., and Amineni, N., 2002, “A Compressor Stage With Wide Flow Range Vaned Diffusers and Different Inlet Configurations,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A, 216(4), pp. 307–320. [CrossRef]
Engeda, A., 2001, “The Unsteady Performance of a Centrifugal Compressor With Different Diffusers,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A, 215(5), pp. 585–599. [CrossRef]
Coppinger, M., and Swain, E., 2000, “Performance Prediction of an Industrial Centrifugal Compressor Inlet Guide Vane System,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part A, 214(2), pp. 153–164. [CrossRef]
Sivagnanasundaram, S., Spence, S., Early, J., and Nikpour, B., 2010, “An Investigation of Compressor Map Width Enhancement and the Inducer Flow Field Using Various Configurations of Shroud Bleed Slot,” ASME Turbo Expo 2010, ASME Paper No. GT2010-22154. [CrossRef]

Figures

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Fig. 1

Effect of swirl component on incidence at inducer inlet

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Fig. 2

Schematic of full-stage compressor flow passage

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Fig. 3

(a) Pressure ratio and (b) efficiency prediction of baseline compressor

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Fig. 4

Schematic of slot width modification

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Fig. 5

(a) Pressure ratio and (b) efficiency prediction of baseline compressor with various slot width

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Fig. 6

Map width of the compressor due to different slot widths

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Fig. 7

Slot flow variation against (a) inducer flow and (b) stage flow due to different slot widths

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Fig. 8

Impact of various slot widths on inducer and slot flow capability at choke and surge

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Fig. 9

Representation of the flow mixing in the circumferential and spanwise directions at the inducer inlet

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Fig. 10

Computational model of the impeller with the vanes in the cavity

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Fig. 11

Schematic of the model shows the vane location

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Fig. 12

(a) Pressure ratio and (b) efficiency prediction of the compressor with vanes in the cavity (at 87% and 100% speed)

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Fig. 13

Slot flow variation against (a) inducer flow and (b) stage flow rates with and without cavity vanes

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Fig. 14

Velocity contour in the slot passage (at 87% speed)

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Fig. 15

Incidence angle variations at just upstream of the main blade leading edge during choke flow

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Fig. 16

Mass circumferentially averaged (MCA) axial velocity variation at just upstream of the main blade leading edge during choke flow

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Fig. 17

Incidence angle variations at just upstream of the main blade leading edge during choke flow

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Fig. 18

Incidence angle variations at just upstream of the main blade leading edge during surge flow

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Fig. 19

MCA swirl velocity component at just upstream of the main blade leading edge during surge flow

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Fig. 20

Incidence angle variations at just upstream of the main blade leading edge during surge flow with and without cavity vanes

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Fig. 21

MCA swirl velocity component variations at just upstream of the main blade leading edge during surge flow

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Fig. 22

MCA axial velocity variations at just upstream of the main blade leading edge during surge flow

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Fig. 23

(a), (b), and (c) represent the absolute circumferential velocity variation at the inducer inlet with and without cavity vanes at 87% speed

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Fig. 24

Pressure ratio characteristics of the compressor due to 3 different relative locations between the impeller blade and the cavity vane

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Fig. 25

Efficiency of the compressor due to 3 different relative locations between the impeller blade and the cavity vane

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Fig. 26

Slot flow variation due to 3 different relative locations between the impeller blade and the cavity vane

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