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Research Papers

Effect of Ingestion on Temperature of Turbine Disks

[+] Author and Article Information
Gary D. Lock

e-mail: ensgdl@bath.ac.uk

J. Michael Owen

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Bath,
Bath BA2 7AY, UK

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received June 28, 2012; final manuscript received August 9, 2012; published online June 26, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Turbomach 135(5), 051010 (Jun 26, 2013) (13 pages) Paper No: TURBO-12-1087; doi: 10.1115/1.4007503 History: Received June 28, 2012; Revised August 09, 2012

This paper describes experimental results from a research facility which experimentally models hot-gas ingress into the wheel-space of an axial turbine stage with an axial-clearance rim seal. Thermochromic liquid crystal (TLC) was used to determine the effect of ingestion on heat transfer to the rotating disk; as far as the authors are aware, this is the first time that the measured effects of ingestion on adiabatic temperature have been published. An adiabatic effectiveness for the rotor was defined, and this definition was used to determine when the effect of ingress was first experienced by the rotor. Concentration measurements on the stator were used to determine the sealing effectiveness of the rim seal, and transient heat transfer tests with heated sealing air were used to determine the adiabatic effectiveness of the rotor. The thermal buffer ratio, which is defined as the ratio of the sealing flow rate when ingress first occurs to that when it is first experienced by the rotor, was shown to depend on the turbulent flow parameter. The local Nusselt numbers, Nu, which were measured on the rotor, were significantly smaller than those for a free disk; they decreased as the sealing flow rate decreased and as the ingress correspondingly increased. The values of Nu and adiabatic effectiveness obtained in these experiments provide data for the validation of CFD codes but caution is needed if they (particularly the values of Nu) are to be extrapolated to engine conditions.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) Typical high-pressure gas-turbine stage; (b) detail of rim seal

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Fig. 2

Simplified diagram of ingress and egress, showing boundary layers on the stator and rotor

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Fig. 3

Rig test section showing turbine stage

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Fig. 4

Velocity triangles for vanes and blades

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Fig. 5

Variation of Cp with θ in annulus for design condition

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Fig. 6

Axial-clearance seal with inserts

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Fig. 8

(a) Photographic image showing color changes for 35 °C and 40 °C TLC during experiment, (b) schematic of photographic image, (c) variation of hue with time at the three radial locations on the rotor disk marked in (b)

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Fig. 7

Experimental setup for temperature and TLC measurements; TC1-7 indicate locations of the fast-response thermocouples

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Fig. 9

Effect of ingress on radial distribution of effectiveness at design condition

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Fig. 10

Variation of adiabatic and concentration effectiveness with Φ0: (a) design condition; (b) over-speed condition

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Fig. 11

Effect of λT on radial variation of Nu Reϕ−0.8 at design condition

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Fig. 12

Effect of Φ0 on h and Nu Reϕ−0.8 at r/b = 0.898 at design condition

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Fig. 13

Effect of ingress on radial variation of nondimensional core temperatures

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