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Research Papers

Through-Flow Analysis of Air-Cooled Gas Turbines

[+] Author and Article Information
Milan V. Petrovic

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Belgrade,
11120 Belgrade, Serbia
e-mail: mpetrovic@mas.bg.ac.rs

Alexander Wiedermann

MAN Diesel & Turbo SE,
46145 Oberhausen,Germany
e-mail: alexander.wiedermann@man.eu

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received August 23, 2012; final manuscript received November 25, 2012; published online September 13, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Turbomach 135(6), 061019 (Sep 13, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: TURBO-12-1177; doi: 10.1115/1.4023463 History: Received August 23, 2012; Revised November 25, 2012

This paper describes the development of a new through-flow method for the analysis of axial multistage turbines with cooling by air from compressor bleed. The method is based on a stream function approach and a finite element solution procedure. It includes a high-fidelity loss and deviation model with improved correlations. A radial distribution model of losses and a new spanwise mixing model are applied to simulate 3D flow effects. The calibration of the models is performed by calculation of a number of test cases with different configurations, with the aim of achieving high accuracy and optimum robustness for each of the test cases considered. Various types of cooling air injection were encompassed: film cooling, trailing edge injection, and disk/endwall coolant flow. There are two effects of air cooling: (i) increase in mass flow downstream of the injection surface and (ii) reduction of the gas total temperature connected with total pressure losses. For both of these effects, the appropriate 2D models were developed and applied. The code was applied to flow analysis and performance prediction of a newly developed industrial gas turbine. Comparison of the predicted results and measured test data for a number of parameters showed good agreement. The results of the validation confirmed that this method based on calibrated correlations can be considered a reliable tool for flow analysis and parameter variation during the design phase.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Finite element grid for a two-stage turbine

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Fig. 2

Radial distribution of losses for stator and rotor of an experimental single-stage turbine under design conditions [11]

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Fig. 3

Calculated entropy distribution in a two-stage turbine

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Fig. 4

Definition of cooling model for stator (film cooling and TE coolant ejection) and disk/casting cooling

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Fig. 5

Calculation domain and the FE grid of MAN's new gas turbine in the 6 MW class

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Fig. 6

Change in the mass flow through the MAN gas turbine. Symbols represent the inlet and outlet of every blade row.

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Fig. 7

Enthalpy-entropy diagram of the expansion line in MAN turbine with air cooling

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Fig. 8

Enthalpy-entropy diagram of the expansion line in MAN turbine without air cooling

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Fig. 9

Distribution of the averaged temperature along the axial coordinate of the turbine

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Fig. 10

Distribution of the averaged pressure along the axial coordinate of the turbine

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Fig. 11

Temperature profile at vane 2-leading edge of the HP turbine: comparison of numerical results with test data

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Fig. 12

Temperature profile at the HP turbine outlet: comparison of experimental and numerical results

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Fig. 13

Temperature profile at the turbine outlet: comparison of experimental and numerical results

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Fig. 14

Pressure profile at the HP turbine outlet: comparison of experimental and numerical results

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Fig. 15

Pressure profile at the turbine outlet: comparison of experimental and numerical results

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Fig. 16

Entropy distribution in MAN turbine with air cooling represented by (a) colors and (b) isolines

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Fig. 17

Meridional velocity and streamlines distribution in MAN turbine with air cooling

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