This paper presents isoenergetic temperature and steady-state film-cooled heat transfer coefficient measurements on the pressure surface of a modern, highly cambered transonic airfoil. A single passage model simulated the idealized two-dimensional flow path between blades in a modern transonic turbine. This set up offered a simpler construction than a linear cascade but produced an equivalent flow condition. Furthermore, this model allowed the use of steady-state, constant surface heat fluxes. We used wide-band thermochromic liquid crystals (TLCs) viewed through a novel miniature periscope system to perform high-accuracy (±0.2 °C) thermography. The peak Mach number along the pressure surface was 1.5, and maximum turbulence intensity was 30%. We used air and carbon dioxide as injectant to simulate the density ratios characteristic of the film cooling problem. We found significant differences between isoenergetic and recovery temperature distributions with a strongly accelerated mainstream and detached coolant jets. Our heat transfer data showed some general similarities with lower-speed data immediately downstream of injection; however, we also observed significant heat transfer attenuation far downstream at high blowing conditions. Our measurements suggested that the momentum ratio was the most appropriate variable to parameterize the effect of injectant density once jet lift-off occurred. We noted several nonintuitive results in our turbulence effect studies. First, we found that increased mainstream turbulence can be overwhelmed by the local augmentation of coolant injection. Second, we observed complex interactions between turbulence level, coolant density, and blowing rate with an accelerating mainstream.