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Research Papers

Detailed Velocity and Turbulence Measurements in an Inclined Large-Scale Film Cooling Array

[+] Author and Article Information
Lamyaa A. El-Gabry

The American University in Cairo,
Mechanical Engineering Department,
New Cairo 11835, Egypt
e-mail: lelgabry@aucegypt.edu

Douglas R. Thurman

US Army Research Laboratory,
Glenn Research Center,
Cleveland, OH 44135

James D. Heidmann

Turbomachinery and Heat Transfer Branch,
NASA Glenn Research Center,
Cleveland, OH 44135

Contributed by International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received February 14, 2012; final manuscript received January 1, 2013; published online September 13, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

J. Turbomach 135(6), 061013 (Sep 13, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: TURBO-12-1012; doi: 10.1115/1.4023347 History: Received February 14, 2012; Revised January 01, 2013

A large-scale model of an inclined row of film cooling holes is used to obtain detailed surface and flow field measurements that will enable future computational fluid dynamics code development and validation. The model consists of three holes of 1.9-cm diameter that are spaced three hole diameters apart and inclined 30 deg from the surface. The length to diameter ratio of the coolant holes is about 18. Measurements include film effectiveness using IR thermography and near wall thermocouples, heat transfer using liquid crystal thermography, flow field temperatures using a thermocouple, and velocity and turbulence quantities using hotwire anemometry. Results are obtained for blowing ratios of up to 2 in order to capture severe conditions in which the jet is lifted. For purposes of comparison with prior art, measurements of the velocity and turbulence field along the jet centerline are made and compare favorably with two data sets in the open literature thereby verifying the test apparatus and methodology are able to replicate existing data sets. In addition, a computational fluid dynamics model using a two-equation turbulence model is developed, and the results for velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent dissipation rate are compared with experimentally derived quantities.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
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References

Goldstein, R. J., 1971, “Film Cooling,” Adv. Heat Transf., 7, pp. 321–379. [CrossRef]
Thole, K. A., Sinha, A. K., Bogard, D. G., and Crawford, M. E., 1990, “Mean Temperature Measurements of Jets in Crossflow for Gas Turbine Film Cooling Applications,” Third International Symposium on Transport Phenomena and Dynamics of Rotating Machinery (ISROMAC-3), Honolulu, HI, February 26–March 2.
Sinha, A. K., Bogard, D. G., and Crawford, M. E., 1991, “Film-Cooling Effectiveness Downstream of a Single Row of Holes With Variable Density Ratio,” ASME J. Turbomach., 113, pp. 442–449. [CrossRef]
Foster, N. W., and Lampard, D., 1980, “The Flow and Film Cooling Effectiveness Following Injection Through a Row of Holes,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 102, pp. 584–588. [CrossRef]
Kohli, A., and Bogard, D. G., 1997, “Adiabatic Effectiveness, Thermal Fields, and Velocity Fields for Film Cooling With Large Angle Injection,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 352–358. [CrossRef]
Foster, N. W., and Lampard, D., 1975, “Effect of Density and Velocity Ratio of Discrete Hole Film Cooling,” AIAA J., 113, pp. 1112–1114. [CrossRef]
Pietrzyk, J. R., Bogard, D. G., and Crawford, M. E., 1990, “Effect of Density Ratio on the Hydrodynamics of Film Cooling,” ASME J. Turbomach., 112, pp. 437–443. [CrossRef]
Pietrzyk, J. R., Bogard, D. G., and Crawford, M. E., 1989, “Hydrodynamic Measurements of Jets in Crossflow for Gas Turbine Film Cooling Application,” ASME J. Turbomach., 111, pp. 139–145. [CrossRef]
Pietrzyk, J. R., 1989, “Experimental Study of Interaction of Dense Jets With a Crossflow for Gas Turbine Applications,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.
Walters, D. K., and Leylek, J. H., 1997, “A Systematic Computational Methodology Applied to a Three-Dimensional Film-Cooling Flowfield,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 777–785. [CrossRef]
El-Gabry, L., Heidmann, J., and Ameri, A., 2010, “Penetration Characteristics of Film-Cooling Jets at High Blowing Ratio,” AIAA J., 48, pp. 1020–1024. [CrossRef]
Andreopoulos, J., and Rodi, W., 1984, “Experimental Investigations of Jets in a Crossflow,” J. Fluid Mech., 138, pp. 93–127. [CrossRef]
Kohli, A., and Bogard, D. G., 2005, “Turbulent Transport in Film Cooling Flows,” ASME J. Heat Transf., 127, pp. 513–520. [CrossRef]
Roach, P. E., 1986, “The Generation of Nearly Isotropic Turbulence by Means of Grids,” Heat Fluid Flow, 8(2), pp. 89–92. [CrossRef]
El-Gabry, L., Thurman, D., and Poinsatte, P., 2011, “Procedure for Determining Length Scales Using Hotwire Anemometry,” NASA/TM (NF1676B TN4063).
Thurman, D., El-Gabry, L., Poinsatte, P., and Heidmann, J., 2011, “Turbulence and Heat Transfer Measurements in an Inclined Large Scale Film Cooling Array—Part II, Temperature and Heat Transfer Measurements,” ASME Turbo Expo 2011, Vancouver, Canada, June 6–10, ASME Paper No. GT2011-46498. [CrossRef]
Yavuzkurt, S., 1984, “A Guide to Uncertainty Analysis of Hot-Wire Data,” J. Fluid Eng., 106, pp. 181–186. [CrossRef]
Bruun, H. H., 1995, Hot-Wire Anemometry: Principles and Signal Analysis, Oxford University Press, New York.
Johnson, P., Shyam, V., and Hah, C., 2011, “Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes Solutions to Flat Plate Film Cooling Scenarios,” NASA/TM-2011-217025, #E-17690.

Figures

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Fig. 1

Wind tunnel test apparatus

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Fig. 2

Wind tunnel inlet velocity profile

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Fig. 3

(a) Photograph of test model; (b) schematic of film cooling model

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Fig. 4

U-velocity contours along jet centerline at BR ∼ 2; dots show measurement locations

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Fig. 5

Velocity vectors and U-velocity contours at X/d ∼ 2, 4, 6, and 8 at BR ∼ 2

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Fig. 6

Turbulent fluctuations u′ along jet centerline at BR ∼ 2

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Fig. 7

Turbulent fluctuations u′ at X/d ∼ 2, 4, 6, and 8 at BR ∼ 2

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Fig. 8

Turbulent fluctuations w′ along jet centerline at BR ∼ 2

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Fig. 9

Turbulent fluctuations w′ at X/d ∼ 2, 4, 6, and 8 at BR ∼ 2

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Fig. 10

Turbulent fluctuations w′ along jet centerline at BR ∼ 2

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Fig. 11

Turbulent fluctuations v′ at X/d ∼ 2, 4, 6, and 8 at BR ∼ 2

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Fig. 12

Turbulent stress u′w′ along coolant jet centerline at BR ∼ 2

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Fig. 13

Turbulent stress uw¯/U∞2 at X/d ∼ 2, 4, 6, and 8 at BR ∼ 2

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Fig. 14

Turbulent stress uv¯/U∞2 at X/d ∼ 2, 4, 6, and 8 at BR ∼ 2

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Fig. 15

U-velocity along jet centerline at BR ∼ 1

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Fig. 16

Vectors and U-velocity contours at X/d ∼ 4 at BR ∼ 1

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Fig. 17

Turbulent fluctuations u′ along jet centerline at BR ∼ 1

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Fig. 18

Turbulent fluctuations u′ along jet centerline at BR ∼ 1

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Fig. 19

Turbulent fluctuations w′ along jet centerline at BR ∼ 1

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Fig. 20

Turbulent fluctuations w′ at X/d ∼ 4 at BR∼ 1

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Fig. 21

Turbulent fluctuations v′ at X/d ∼ 4 at BR∼ 1

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Fig. 22

Turbulent fluctuations v′ at X/d ∼ 4 at BR∼ 1

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Fig. 23

Turbulent stress u′w′ at X/d ∼ 4 at BR ∼ 1

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Fig. 24

Turbulent stress u′v′ at X/d ∼ 4 at BR ∼ 1

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Fig. 25

Nearfield turbulence levels (reproduced from Fig. 6(a) of Ref. [7])

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Fig. 26

Nearfield turbulent shear stress (reproduced from Fig. 7(a) of Ref. [7])

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Fig. 27

Normalized velocity U/U∞ along jet centerline (a) Kohli [19], (b) test results

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Fig. 28

Turbulent shear stress along jet centerline (a) Kohli [19] Fig. 7(a), (b) test results

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Fig. 29

Turbulent kinetic energy contours along jet centerline (a) experiment, (b) CFD

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Fig. 30

Velocity contours streamwise locations X/d = 2, 4, 6, and 8 (a) experiment, (b) CFD

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Fig. 31

Turbulent kinetic energy contours along jet centerline (a) experiment, (b) CFD

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Fig. 32

Turbulent dissipation rate along jet centerline (a) experiment, (b) CFD

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