Recent interest has been shown in using synthetic gaseous (syngas) fuels to power gas turbine engines. An important issue concerning these fuels is the potential for increased contaminant deposition that can inhibit cooling designs and expedite the material degradation of vital turbine components. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed understanding of how contaminants deposit on the surface of a turbine vane with a thermal barrier coating (TBC). The vane model used in this study was designed to match the thermal behavior of real engine components by properly scaling the convective heat transfer coefficients as well as the thermal conductivity of the vane wall. Four different film cooling configurations were studied: round holes, craters, a trench, and a modified trench. The contaminants used in this study were small particles of paraffin wax that were sprayed into the mainstream flow of the wind tunnel. The wax particles modeled both the molten nature of contaminants in an engine as well as the particle trajectory by properly matching the expected range of Stokes number. This study found that the presence of film cooling significantly increased the accumulation of deposits. It was also found that the deposition behavior was strongly affected by the film cooling configuration that was used on the pressure side of the vane. The craters and trench performed the best in mitigating the accumulation of deposits immediately downstream of the film cooling configuration. In general, the presence of deposits reduced the film cooling performance on the surface of the TBC. However, the additional thermal insulation provided by the deposits improved the cooling performance at the interface of the TBC and vane wall.