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Research Papers

Main Annulus Gas Path Interactions—Turbine Stator Well Heat Transfer

[+] Author and Article Information
Antonio Guijarro Valencia

Rolls-Royce plc,
Alstom Building D-9001
Derby, UK

Daniel Coren

Visiting Research Fellow
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Imperial College London,
London SW7 2AZ, UK

Christopher Long

TFMRC,
University of Sussex,
Brighton BN1 9QT, UK

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the Journal of Turbomachinery. Manuscript received January 10, 2013; final manuscript received January 17, 2013; published online September 26, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Turbomach 136(2), 021010 (Sep 26, 2013) (16 pages) Paper No: TURBO-13-1002; doi: 10.1115/1.4023622 History: Received January 10, 2013; Revised January 17, 2013

This paper summarizes the work of a five year research program into the heat transfer within cavities adjacent to the main annulus of a gas turbine. The work has been a collaboration between several gas turbine manufacturers, also involving a number of universities working together. The principal objective of the study has been to develop and validate computer modeling methods of the cooling flow distribution and heat transfer management, in the environs of multistage turbine disk rims and blade fixings, with a view to maintaining component and subsystem integrity, while achieving optimum engine performance and minimizing emissions. A fully coupled analysis capability has been developed using combinations of commercially available and in-house computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and finite element (FE) thermomechanical modeling codes. The main objective of the methodology is to help decide on optimum cooling configurations for disk temperature, stress, and life considerations. The new capability also gives us an effective means of validating the method by direct use of disk temperature measurements, where otherwise, additional and difficult to obtain parameters, such as reliable heat flux measurements, would be considered necessary for validation of the use of CFD for convective heat transfer. A two-stage turbine test rig has been developed and improved to provide good quality thermal boundary condition data with which to validate the analysis methods. A cooling flow optimization study has also been performed to support a redesign of the turbine stator well cavity to maximize the effectiveness of cooling air supplied to the disk rim region. The benefits of this design change have also been demonstrated on the rig. A brief description of the test rig facility will be provided together with some insights into the successful completion of the test program. Comparisons will be provided of disk rim cooling performance for a range of cooling flows and geometry configurations. The new elements of this work are the presentation of additional test data and validation of the automatically coupled analysis method applied to a partially cooled stator well cavity (i.e., including some local gas ingestion) and also the extension of the cavity cooling design optimization study to other new geometries.

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References

Specific Targeted Research Project, 2006, “Annex I—‘Description of Work’,” Main Annulus Gas Path Interactions (MAGPI), Proposal/Contract No. 30874.
Dixon, J. A., Brunton, I. L., Scanlon, T. J., Wojciechowski, G., Stefanis, V., and Childs, P. R. N., 2006, “Turbine Stator Well Heat Transfer and Cooling Flow Optimisation,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-90306. [CrossRef]
Illingworth, J., Hills, N., and Barnes, C., 2005, “3D Fluid-Solid Heat Transfer Coupling of an Aero-Engine Preswirl System,” Proceedings of the ASME Gas Turbo Expo 2005: Power for Land, Sea, and Air, Reno, NV, June 6–9, ASME Paper No. GT2005-68939. [CrossRef]
Smith, P. E. J., Mugglestone, J., Tham, K. M., Coren, D., EastwoodD., and Long, C., 2012, “Conjugate Heat Transfer CFD Analysis in Turbine Disc Cavities,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-69597.
Dixon, J. A., Guijarro Valencia, A., Bauknecht, A., Coren, D., and Atkins, N., 2010, “Heat Transfer in Turbine Hub Cavities Adjacent to the Main Gas Path,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-22130. [CrossRef]
Guijarro Valencia, A., Dixon, J. A., Guardini, A., Coren, D., and Eastwood, D., 2011, “Heat Transfer in Turbine Hub Cavities Adjacent to the Main Gas Path Including FE-CFD Coupled Thermal Analysis,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-45695. [CrossRef]
Coren, D. D., Atkins, N. R., Turner, J. R., Eastwood, D., Davies, S., Childs, P. R. N., Dixon, J., and Scanlon, T., 2010, “An Advanced Multi Configuration Turbine Stator Well Cooling Test Facility,” Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2010, Glasgow, UK, June 14–18, ASME Paper No. GT2010-23450. [CrossRef]
Eastwood, D., Coren, D. D., Long, C. A., Atkins, N. R., Childs, P. R. N., Scanlon, T. J., and Guijarro Valencia, A., 2011, “Experimental Investigation of Turbine Stator Well Rim Seal, Re-Ingestion and Interstage Seal Flows Using Gas Concentration Techniques and Displacement Measurements,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-45874. [CrossRef]
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Guijarro Valencia, A., Dixon, J. A., Da Soghe, R., Facchini, B., SmithP. E. J., Munoz, J., Eastwood, D., Long, C. A., Coren, D. D., and Atkins, N. R., “An Investigation Into Numerical Analysis Alternatives for Predicting Reingestion in Turbine Disc Rim Cavities,” Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo 2012, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 11–15, ASME Paper No. GT2012-68592.
Eastwood, D., CorenD. D., Long, C. A., Atkins, N. R., Childs, P. R. N., Scanlon, T. J., and Guijarro Valencia, A., 2012, “Experimental Investigation of Turbine Stator Well Rim Seal, Re-Ingestion and Interstage Seal Flows Using Gas Concentration Techniques and Displacement Measurements,” J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 134(8), p. 082501. [CrossRef]
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Typical turbine stator well

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Fig. 2

Turbine rig test facility

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Fig. 3

Turbine rig section

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Fig. 4

Cooling flow paths

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Fig. 5

Temperature instrumentation

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Fig. 6

Pressure measurement positions

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Fig. 7

Siemens conjugate CFD model

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Fig. 8

Pressure tapping lead-out pipe flaw

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Fig. 9

3D Finite element model (mesh)

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Fig. 10

Extent of the computational mesh

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Fig. 11

Rotor 1 leading edge mesh

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Fig. 12

Detail of the rim gap mesh

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Fig. 13

Drive arm hole cavity mesh

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Fig. 14

Angled drive arm hole cavity mesh

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Fig. 15

Lock-plate slot cavity mesh

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Fig. 16

Deflector plate cavity mesh

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Fig. 17

Extent of the CFD geometry showing the operating conditions of the model

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Fig. 18

Main annulus instrumentation locations

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Fig. 19

Air temperature measurement locations

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Fig. 20

Contours of metal temperature for the coupled solution using the 2D SC03 model and a reduced 3D CFD model—uncooled

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Fig. 21

Metal temperature measurement locations

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Fig. 22

Metal temperature chart of the stage 1 rotor disk front thermocouples

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Fig. 23

Metal temperature chart of the stage 1 rotor disk rear thermocouples

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Fig. 24

Metal temperature chart in the interstage seal stator foot wall thermocouples

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Fig. 25

Nondimensional temperature contours in the metal and air showing the heat transfer mechanism predicted by the coupled analysis

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Fig. 26

Contours of metal temperature for the coupled solution using the 3D SC03 model and the cut down 3D CFD model for an uncooled configuration

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Fig. 27

Metal temperature chart in the stage 1 front face disk thermocouples comparing the 2D and 3D cases with the test data

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Fig. 28

Metal temperature chart of the stage 1 rotor disk rear thermocouples comparing the 2D and 3D cases with the test data

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Fig. 29

Metal temperature chart in the stator foot thermocouples comparing the 2D and 3D cases with the test data

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Fig. 30

Absolute total temperature contours in the stator well cavity (uncooled)

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Fig. 31

Path lines uncooled cavity

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Fig. 32

Metal temperature chart in the stage 1 rotor disk rear thermocouples comparing the effect of the seal clearance with the test data. Uncooled cavity.

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Fig. 33

Contours of metal temperature for the coupled solution using the 3D SC03 model and the whole 3D CFD model for the cooled case

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Fig. 34

3D model cooled case comparisons

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Fig. 35

Cooling effectiveness at 30 g/s

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Fig. 36

Cooling effectiveness—rotor 1 rear face

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