0
Research Papers

Aeroperformance Measurements for a Fully Cooled High-Pressure Turbine Stage

[+] Author and Article Information
Charles Haldeman

e-mail: cwhaldeman@gmail.com

Michael Dunn

e-mail: dunn.129@osu.edu

Randall Mathison

e-mail: mathison.4@osu.eduThe Ohio State University,
Gas Turbine Laboratory,
2300 West Case Road,
Columbus, OH 43235

William Troha

e-mail: bill-troha@cox.net

Timothy Vander Hoek

e-mail: Timothy.vanderhoek@Honeywell.com

Ardeshir Riahi

e-mail: ardeshir.riahi@honeywell.comHoneywell International,
111 South 34th Street,
Phoenix, AZ 85072

1Presently at Pratt and Whitney, East Hartford, CT.

2Retired from Honeywell.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received July 5, 2012; final manuscript received May 23, 2013; published online September 26, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Turbomach 136(3), 031001 (Sep 26, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: TURBO-12-1131; doi: 10.1115/1.4024777 History: Received July 05, 2012; Revised May 23, 2013

A detailed aero performance measurement program utilizing fully cooled engine hardware (high-pressure turbine stage) supplied by Honeywell Aerospace Advanced Technology Engines is described. The primary focus of this work was obtaining relevant aerodynamic data for a small turbine stage operating at a variety of conditions, including changes in operating conditions, geometry, and cooling parameters. The work extraction and the overall stage performance for each of these conditions can be determined using the measured acceleration rate of the turbine disk, the previously measured moment of inertia of the rotating system, and the mass flow through the turbine stage. Measurements were performed for two different values of tip/shroud clearance and two different blade tip configurations. The vane and blade cooling mass flow could be adjusted independently and set to any desired value, including totally off. A wide range of stage pressure ratios, coolant to free stream temperature ratios, and corrected speeds were used during the course of the investigation. A combustor emulator controlled the free stream inlet gas temperature, enabling variation of the temperature ratios and investigation of their effects on aero performance. The influence of the tip/shroud gap is clearly seen in this experiment. Improvements in specific work and efficiency achieved by reducing the tip/shroud clearance depend upon the specific values of stage pressure ratio and corrected speed. The maximum change of 3%–4% occurs at a stage pressure ratio and corrected speed greater than the initial design point intent. The specific work extraction and efficiency for two different blade tip sets (one damaged from a rub and one original) were compared in detail. In general, the tip damage only had a very small effect on the work extraction for comparable conditions. The specific work extraction and efficiency were influenced by the presence of cooling gas and by the temperature of the cooling gas relative to the free stream gas temperature and the metal temperature. These same parameters were influenced by the magnitude of the vane inlet gas total temperature relative to the vane metal temperature and the coolant gas temperature.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Kurzke, J., 2002, “Performance Modeling Methodology: Efficiency Definitions for Cooled Single and Multistage Turbines,” ASME Turbo Expo, Amsterdam, June 3–6, ASME Paper No. GT2002-30497. [CrossRef]
Young, J. B., and Horlock, J. H., 2006, “Defining the Efficiency of a Cooled Turbine,” ASME J. Turbomach., 128, pp. 658–667. [CrossRef]
Lim, C. H., Pullan, G., and Northall, J., 2012, “Estimating the Loss Associated With Film Cooling for a Turbine Stage,” ASME J. Turbomach., 134(2), p. 021011. [CrossRef]
Guenette, G. R., Epstein, A. H., and Ito, E., 1989, “Turbine Aerodynamic Performance Measurements in Short Duration Facilities,” AIAA Paper No. 89-2690. [CrossRef]
Haldeman, C. W., Dunn, M. G., Lotsof, J., MacArthur, C. D., and Cohrs, B., 1991, “Uncertainty Analysis of Turbine Aerodynamic Performance Measurements in Short Duration Test Facilities,” AIAA/SAE/ASME 27th Joint Propulsion Conference, Sacramento, CA, June 24–26, AIAA Paper No. 91-2131. [CrossRef]
Keogh, R. C., Guenette, G. R., and Sommer, T. P., 2000, “Aerodynamic Performance Measurements of a Fully-Scaled Turbine in a Short-Duration Facility,” ASME Turbo Expo, Munich, May 8–11, ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-486.
Keogh, R. C., Guenette, G. R., Spadaccini, C. M., and Florjaancic, S., 2002, “Aerodynamic Performance Measurements of a Film-Cooled Turbine Stage: Experimental Results,” ASME Turbo Expo 2002, Amsterdam, June 3–6, ASME Paper No. GT2002-30344. [CrossRef]
Haldeman, C. W., Dunn, M. G., Barter, J. W., Green, B. R., and Bergholz, R. F., 2005, “Experimental Investigation Of Vane Clocking in a One and One-Half Stage High Pressure Turbine,” ASME J. Turbomach., 127, pp. 512–521. [CrossRef]
Haldeman, C. W., 2003, “An Experimental Investigation of Clocking Effects on Turbine Aerodynamics Using a Modern 3-D One and One-Half Stage High Pressure Turbine for Code Verification and Flow Model Development,” Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Aeronautical and Astronautical Engineering, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.
Atkins, N. R., Miller, R. J., and Ainsworth, R. W., 2004, “The Development of Aerodynamic Performance Measurements in a Transient Test Facility,” ASME Turbo Expo, Vienna, June 14–17, ASME Paper No. GT2004-53813. [CrossRef]
Denos, R., Paniagua, G., Yasa, T., and Fortugno, E., 2006, “Determination of the Efficiency of a Cooled HP Turbine in a Compression Tube Facility,” ASME Turbo Expo, Barcelona, May 8–11, ASME Paper No. GT2006-90460. [CrossRef]
Pau, M., Paniagua, G., Delhaye, D., and de la Loma, A., 2010, “Aerothermal Impact of Stator-Rim Flow and Rotor Platform Film Cooling on a Transonic Turbine Stage,” ASME J. Turbomach., 132(2), p. 021006. [CrossRef]
Beard, P. F., Povey, T., and Chana, K. S., 2010, “Turbine Efficiency Measurement System for the QinetiQ Turbine Test Facility,” ASME J. Turbomach., 132, p. 011002. [CrossRef]
Reid, K., Denton, J., Pullan, G., Curtis, E., and Longley, J., 2007, “The Interaction of Turbine Inter-Platform Leakage Flow With the Mainstream Flow,” ASME J. Turbomach., 129, pp. 303–310. [CrossRef]
Schüpbach, P., Abhari, R. S., Rose, M. G., and Gier, J., 2011, “Influence of Rim Seal Purge Flow on the Performance of an Endwall-Profiled Axial Turbine,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133(2), p. 021011. [CrossRef]
Rosic, B., Denton, J. D., and Curtis, E. M., 2008, “The Influence of Shroud and Cavity Geometry on Turbine Performance: An Experimental and Computational Study—Part I: Shroud Geometry,” ASME J. Turbomach., 130(4), p. 041001. [CrossRef]
Rosic, B., Denton, J. D., Curtis, E. M., and Peterson, A. T., 2008, “The Influence of Shroud and Cavity Geometry on Turbine Performance: An Experimental and Computational Study—Part II: Exit Cavity Geometry,” ASME J. Turbomach., 130(4), p. 041002. [CrossRef]
Germain, T., Nagel, M., Raab, I., Schüpbach, P., Abhari, R. S., and Rose, M. G., 2010, “Improving Efficiency of a High Work Turbine Using Nonaxisymmetric Endwalls—Part I: Endwall Design and Performance,” ASME J. Turbomach., 132(2), p. 021007. [CrossRef]
Schüpbach, P., Abhari, R. S., Rose, M. G., Germain, T., Raab, I., and Gier, J., 2010, “Improving Efficiency of a High Work Turbine Using Nonaxisymmetric Endwalls—Part II: Time-Resolved Flow Physics,” ASME J. Turbomach., 132(2), p. 021008. [CrossRef]
König, S., Stoffel, B., and Schobeiri, M. T., 2009, “Experimental Investigation of the Clocking Effect in a 1.5-Stage Axial Turbine—Part I: Time-Averaged Results,” ASME J. Turbomach., 131(2), p. 021003. [CrossRef]
Dickens, T., and Day, I., 2011, “The Design of Highly Loaded Axial Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133(3), p. 031007. [CrossRef]
Haldeman, C. W., Mathison, R. M., Dunn, M. G., Southworth, S., Harral, J. W., and Heitland, G., 2008, “Aerodynamic and Heat Flux Measurements in a Single Stage Fully Cooled Turbine—Part I: Experimental Approach,” ASME J. Turbomach., 130(2), p. 021015. [CrossRef]
Haldeman, C. W., Mathison, R. M., and Dunn, M. G., 2004, “Design, Construction and Operation of a Combustor Emulator for Short-Duration High-Pressure Turbine Experiments,” AIAA Joint Propulsion Conference, Fort Lauderdale, FL, July 11–14, AIAA Paper No. 2004-3829. [CrossRef]
Haldeman, C. W., Mathison, R. M., Dunn, M. G., Southworth, S., Harral, J. W., and Heitland, G., 2008, “Aerodynamic and Heat Flux Measurements in a Single Stage Fully Cooled Turbine—Part II: Experimental Results,” ASME J. Turbomach., 130(2), p. 021016. [CrossRef]
Guenette, G. R., Epstein, A. H., Giles, M. B., Hanes, R., and Norton, R. J. G., 1989, “Fully Scaled Transonic Turbine Rotor Heat Transfer Measurements,” ASME J. Turbomach., 111, pp. 1–7. [CrossRef]
Dunn, M. G., Rae, W. J., and Holt, J. L., 1984, “Measurement and Analysis of Heat Flux Data in a Turbine Stage—Part II: Discussion of Results and Comparison with Predictions,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 106, pp. 234–240. [CrossRef]
Dunn, M. G., Rae, W. J., and Holt, J. L., 1984, “Measurement and Analysis of Heat Flux Data in a Turbine Stage—Part I: Description of Experimental Apparatus and Data Analysis,” ASME Eng. Power, 106, pp. 229–233. [CrossRef]
Dunn, M. G., Kim, J., and Rae, W. J., 1997, “Investigation of the Heat-Island Effect for Heat-Flux Measurements in Short-Duration Facilities,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 753–760. [CrossRef]
Haldeman, C.W., and Dunn, M. G., 1998, “High-Accuracy Turbine Performance Measurements in Short-Duration Facilities,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 1–9. [CrossRef]
Haldeman, C. W., Dunn, M. G., and Mathison, R. M., 2010, “Fully-Cooled Single Stage HP Transonic Turbine—Part I: Influence of Cooling Mass Flow Variations and Inlet Temperature Profiles on Blade Internal and External Aerodynamics,” ASME J. Turbomach., 134(3), p. 031010. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Sketch of turbine rig configuration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Typical operating history for (a) inlet total pressure, (b) pressure ratio, and (c) rotor speed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Temperature establishment over main experiment (a) and stability over data time window (b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Rotor speed and acceleration over data window

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Variation of power extracted with mass flow

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Specific work extracted for (a) 1.5% gap, (b) 3% gap, and (c) difference between cases (a minus b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Efficiency for (a) nominal gap, (b) open gap, and (c) difference between cases (a minus b)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Effect of tip gap size on (a) specific work and (b) efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Influence of blade tip configuration on efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Influence of cooling gas introduction on specific work extraction for Tg = Tm = Tc

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Influence of cooling gas introduction on efficiency for Tg = Tm = Tc

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Influence of cooling on specific work for Tg> Tm> Tc

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Influence of cooling on efficiency for Tg> Tm> Tc

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In