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Research Papers

A Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Circumferential Groove Casing Treatment in a Transonic Axial Compressor

[+] Author and Article Information
Haixin Chen

e-mail: chenhaixin@tsinghua.edu.cn

Song Fu

School of Aerospace Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China

Scott C. Morris

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Notre Dame,
Notre Dame, IN 46556

Aspi Wadia

GE Aviation,
Cincinnati, OH 45215

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received October 8, 2012; final manuscript received April 29, 2013; published online September 26, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Turbomach 136(3), 031003 (Sep 26, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: TURBO-12-1201; doi: 10.1115/1.4024651 History: Received October 08, 2012; Revised April 29, 2013

Numerical investigations were conducted to predict the performance of a transonic axial compressor rotor with circumferential groove casing treatment. The Notre Dame Transonic Axial Compressor (ND-TAC) was simulated at Tsinghua University with an in-house computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code (NSAWET) for this work. Experimental data from the ND-TAC were used to define the geometry, boundary conditions, and data sampling method for the numerical simulation. These efforts, combined with several unique simulation approaches, such as nonmatched grid boundary technology to treat the periodic boundaries and interfaces between groove grids and the passage grid, resulted in good agreement between the numerical and experimental results for overall compressor performance and radial profiles of exit total pressure. Efforts were made to study blade level flow mechanisms to determine how the casing treatment impacts the compressor's stall margin and performance. The flow structures in the passage, the tip gap, and the grooves as well as their mutual interactions were plotted and analyzed. The flow and momentum transport across the tip gap in the smooth wall and the casing treatment configurations were quantitatively compared.

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References

Schlechtriem, S., and Loetzerich, M., 1997, “Breakdown of Tip Leakage Vortices in Compressors at Flow Conditions Close to Stall,” ASME Paper No. 97-GT-41.
Hoffman, W. H., and Ballman, J., 2003, “Some Aspects of Tip Vortex Behavior in a Transonic Turbocompressor,” ISABE Paper No. ISABE-2003-1223.
Yamada, K., Furukawa, M., Inoue, M., and Funazaki, K., 2003, “Numerical Analysis of Tip Leakage Flow Field in a Transonic Axial Compressor Rotor,” IGTC Paper No. IGTC-2003-095.
Hah, C., Rabe, D. C., and Wadia, A. R., 2004, “Role of Tip-Leakage Vortices and Passage Shock in Stall Inception in a Swept Transonic Compressor Rotor,” ASME Paper No. GT2004-53867. [CrossRef]
Chen, H., Huang, X., and Fu, S., 2006, “CFD Investigation on Stall Mechanisms and Casing Treatment of a Transonic Compressor,” AIAA Paper No. 2006-4799. [CrossRef]
Vo, H. D., Tan, C. S., and Greitzer, E. M., 2008, “Criteria for Spike Initiated Rotating Stall,” ASME J. Turbomach., 130, p. 011023. [CrossRef]
Cameron, J. D., and Morris, S. C., 2007, “Spatial Correlation Based Stall Inception Analysis,” ASME Paper No. GT2007-28268. [CrossRef]
Rabe, D. C., and Hah, C., 2002, “Application of Casing Circumferential Grooves for Improved Stall Margin in a Transonic Axial Compressor,” ASME Paper No. GT2002-30641. [CrossRef]
Wilke, I., and Kau, H.-P., 2002, “A Numerical Investigation of the Influence of Casing Treatment on the Tip Leakage Flow in a HPC Front Stage,” ASME Paper No. GT2002-30642. [CrossRef]
Shabbir, A., and Adamczyk, J. J., 2005, “Flow Mechanism for Stall Margin Improvement Due to Circumferential Casing Grooves on Axial Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 127, pp. 708–717. [CrossRef]
Bennington, M., Ross, M. H., Cameron, J. D., Morris, S. C., Du, J., Lin, F., and Chen, J., 2010, “An Experimental and Computational Investigation of Tip Clearance Flow and Its Impact on Stall Inception,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-23516. [CrossRef]
Huang, X., Chen, H., and Fu, S., 2007, “CFD Investigation on the Circumferential Grooves Casing Treatment of Transonic Compressor,” ASME Paper No. GT2008-51107. [CrossRef]
Huang, X., Chen, H., Shi, K., Fu, S., and Wadia, A., 2009, “CFD Investigation on Circumferential Grooves Casing Treatment of a Transonic Compressor,” ISABE Paper No. ISABE-2009-1185. [CrossRef]
Chen, H., Fu, S., and Li, F.-W., 2003, “Navier–Stokes Simulations for Transport Aircraft Wing-Body Combinations With Developed High-Lift Systems,” J. Aircr., 40(5), pp. 883–890. [CrossRef]
Prince, D. C., Jr., Wisler, D. C., and Hilvers, D. E., 1974, “Study of Casing Treatment Stall Margin Improvement Phenomena,” NASA Paper No. CR-134552.
Smith, G. D. J., and Cumpsty, N. A., 1985, “Flow Phenomena in Compressor Casing Treatment,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 106(3), pp. 532–541. [CrossRef]
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Sketch of the test rig

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Fig. 2

(a) Straight H grid (99% span). (b) Contours of Mach number demonstrating unphysical solution with “smearing” of the passage shock (99% span).

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Fig. 3

Smoothed grid with unmatched periodical boundary

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Fig. 4

Grid blocks for tip gap

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Fig. 5

Grid for CGCT grooves with unmatched interface

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Fig. 6

Total pressure contours on both sides of the groove-passage unmatched interfaces (red lines: passage side; green lines: groove side)

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Fig. 7

Mass flow convergence history at different back pressure

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Fig. 8

(a) Speed curves of SW configuration: total pressure ratio. (b) Speed curves of SW configuration: adiabatic efficiency.

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Fig. 9

Spanwise profiles of exit total pressure ratio (SW)

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Fig. 10

Contours of relative Mach number (m· = 9.897 kg/s, 99% span)

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Fig. 11

(a) Speed curves of CGCT configuration: total pressure ratio. (b) Speed curves of CGCT configuration: adiabatic efficiency.

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Fig. 12

Spanwise profiles of exit total pressure ratio (CGCT)

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Fig. 13

Sketch of the backward momentum transport through tip gap (a picture from Ref. [17])

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Fig. 14

Sketches of surfaces investigated for momentum transport through tip gap

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Fig. 15

(a) PS cut plane (SW) the blade-casing-groove interaction (m· = 8.780 kg/s). (b) PS cut plane (CGCT) the blade-casing-groove interaction (m· = 8.780 kg/s). (c) SS cut plane (SW) the blade-casing-groove interaction (m· = 8.780 kg/s). (d) SS cut plane (CGCT) the blade-casing-groove interaction (m· = 8.780 kg/s).

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Fig. 16

Distribution of axial momentum injected into passage from grooves (m· = 8.780 kg/s)

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Fig. 17

Distribution of axial momentum injected into passage through tip gap (m· = 8.780 kg/s)

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Fig. 18

(a) SW static pressure contours (red lines) and streamlines (black lines with arrows) (m· = 8.780 kg/s, 99% span). (b) CGCT: static pressure contours (red lines) and streamlines (black lines with arrows) (m· = 8.780 kg/s, 99% span).

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Fig. 19

(a) SW entropy contour near casing (m· = 8.780 kg/s, 99% span). (b) CGCT entropy contour near casing (m· = 8.780 kg/s, 99% span).

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Fig. 20

(a) SW entropy contours (colored field) and streamlines (black lines with arrows) (m· = 8.780 kg/s). (b) CGCT entropy contours (colored field) and streamlines (black lines with arrows) (m· = 8.780 kg/s).

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