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Research Papers

Time-Resolved Film-Cooling Flows at High and Low Density Ratios

[+] Author and Article Information
Molly K. Eberly

Applied Research Laboratory,
The Pennsylvania State University,
State College, PA 16804
e-mail: mke5007@psu.edu

Karen A. Thole

Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: kthole@engr.psu.edu

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received July 2, 2013; final manuscript received July 21, 2013; published online November 8, 2013. Editor: Ronald Bunker.

J. Turbomach 136(6), 061003 (Nov 08, 2013) (11 pages) Paper No: TURBO-13-1129; doi: 10.1115/1.4025574 History: Received July 02, 2013; Revised July 21, 2013

Film-cooling is one of the most prevalent cooling technologies that is used for gas turbine airfoil surfaces. Numerous studies have been conducted to give the cooling effectiveness over ranges of velocity, density, mass flux, and momentum flux ratios. Few studies have reported flowfield measurements with even fewer of those providing time-resolved flowfields. This paper provides time-averaged and time-resolved particle image velocimetry data for a film-cooling flow at low and high density ratios. A generic film-cooling hole geometry with wide lateral spacing was used for this study, which was a 30 deg inclined round hole injecting along a flat plate with lateral spacing P/D = 6.7. The jet Reynolds number for flowfield testing varied from 2500 to 7000. The data indicate differences in the flowfield and turbulence characteristics for the same momentum flux ratios at the two density ratios. The time-resolved data indicate Kelvin–Helmholtz breakdown in the jet-to-freestream shear layer.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the flowfield and heat transfer facility with the nitrogen cooling system

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Fig. 2

Flat plate geometry for film-cooling studies

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Fig. 3

Turbulent boundary layer profile in near-wall coordinates at x/D = −5.1, measured with LDV and TRDPIV

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Fig. 4

Turbulent velocity fluctuations in near-wall coordinates at x/D = −5.1, measured with LDV and TRDPIV

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Fig. 5

Streamwise profile at x/D = 3.0 and the hole centerline location for film-cooling at, M = 1.0, and DR = 1.0

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Fig. 6

Streamwise turbulent velocity fluctuations at x/D = 3.0 and the hole center location, M = 1.0, and DR = 1.0

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Fig. 7

High density ratio contours for closely-spaced axial cylindrical holes at blowing ratios (a) M = 0.5, DR = 1.6 (I = 0.16, VR = 0.32) and (b) M = 1, DR = 1.6 (I = 0.61, VR = 0.61)

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Fig. 8

Laterally averaged film-cooling effectiveness at high density ratio at M = 0.5

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Fig. 9

High (a) and low (b) density ratio effectiveness contours for widely-spaced axial cylindrical holes at blowing ratios (a) M = 0.6, DR = 1.6 (I = 0.21, VR = 0.36); (b) M = 1, DR = 1.6 (I = 0.64, VR = 0.63); (c) M = 2, DR = 1.6 (I = 2.4, VR = 1.2); (d) M = 0.5, DR = 1.2 (I = 0.22, VR = 0.42) and (e) M = 1, DR = 1.2 (I = 0.87, VR = 0.84)

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Fig. 10

Centerline film-cooling effectiveness with respect to downstream distance

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Fig. 11

Laterally averaged film-cooling effectiveness at high density ratio with respect to downstream distance, compared to Schmidt et al. [2] and Waye and Bogard [3]

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Fig. 12

Time-averaged streamwise velocity contours and streamlines for high and low density ratio at P1 and low momentum flux ratio

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Fig. 13

Time-averaged streamwise velocity contours and streamlines for high and low density ratio at P1 and M = 1

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Fig. 14

Time-averaged streamwise velocity contours and streamlines for high and low density ratio at P1 and M = 2

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Fig. 15

Time-averaged streamwise velocity contours and streamlines for high density ratio at P2 and M = 1

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Fig. 16

Time-averaged streamwise velocity contours and streamlines for high density ratio at P2 and M = 2

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Fig. 17

High and low density ratio streamwise velocity profile at x/D = 3 (a) and x/D = 6 (b) for P1

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Fig. 18

Turbulence intensity contours at high and low density ratios for M = 0.6 and P1

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Fig. 19

Turbulence intensity contours at high and low density ratios for M = 1 at P1

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Fig. 20

Turbulence intensity contours at high and low density ratios for M = 2 at P1

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Fig. 21

Time-resolved velocity vectors and vorticity contours at DR = 1.2, M = 2 (I = 3.3, VR = 1.7) at P1

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Fig. 22

Time-resolved velocity vectors and vorticity contours for M = 0.5, DR = 1.2 (I = 0.22, VR = 0.43) at P1

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Fig. 23

Time-resolved velocity vectors and vorticity contours for M = 0.6, DR = 1.6 (I = 0.25, VR = 0.39) at P1

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