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Research Papers

Flow Fields in an Axial Flow Compressor During Four-Quadrant Operation

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew Gill, Thomas M. Harms

Department of Mechanical
and Mechatronic Engineering,
University of Stellenbosch,
Matieland, Private Bag X1,
7602, South Africa

Theodor W. Von Backström

Department of Mechanical
and Mechatronic Engineering,
University of Stellenbosch,
Matieland, Private Bag X1,
7602, South Africa
e-mail: twvb@sun.ac.za

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received July 16, 2013; final manuscript received August 30, 2013; published online November 15, 2013. Editor: Ronald Bunker.

J. Turbomach 136(6), 061007 (Nov 15, 2013) (14 pages) Paper No: TURBO-13-1157; doi: 10.1115/1.4025594 History: Received July 16, 2013; Revised August 30, 2013

It has been shown in previous investigations that when all combinations of both positive and negative direction of rotation and flow direction are allowed in operating a multistage axial flow compressor, the operating point may be in any of the four quadrants of the pressure rise versus flow characteristic. The present paper is the first discussion of the flow field of all possible modes of operation of an axial flow compressor. During the present study interstage time dependent hot film velocity measurements and five hole pneumatic probe measurements were combined with steady and time dependent CFD solutions to investigate the flow fields in the three-stage axial compressor. Results are presented in terms of mean-line velocity triangles, mean stream surface plots, midspan radial velocity contours right through the compressor, rotor-downstream radial distributions of axial and tangential velocity, stator-downstream axial velocity contours and midspan entropy contours through the compressor. Main flow features are pointed out and discussed. The study was instigated in an effort to understand possible accident scenarios in a three-shaft closed cycle nuclear powered helium gas turbine.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Quadrant numbering scheme for a pressure-rise versus flow rate compressor map

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Fig. 2

First quadrant velocity triangles for first stage at 50% of span (a) φ = 0.279 (stalled operation), (b) φ = 0.508 (design point), (c) φ = 0.568

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Fig. 3

Third quadrant, negative rotation velocity triangles for first stage at 50% of span (a) φ = -0.220, (b) φ = -0.314, (c) φ = -0.369

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Fig. 4

Second quadrant, negative rotation velocity triangles for first stage at 50% of span (a) φ = -0.482, (b) φ = -0.553, (c) φ = -0.843

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Fig. 5

Fourth quadrant, positive rotation velocity triangles for first stage at 50% of span (a) φ = 0.665, (b) φ = 0.747, (c) φ = 1.028

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Fig. 6

Circumferentially averaged flow paths at (a) first quadrant design point φ = 0.508, (b) fourth quadrant, positive rotation φ = 1.028, (c) second quadrant negative rotation, φ = -0.843, (d) third quadrant, negative rotation φ = -0.314, (e) fourth quadrant, negative rotation φ = 0.165

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Fig. 7

Radial velocity distribution on constant radius surface at midspan (a) first quadrant design point φ=0.508, (b) fourth quadrant, positive rotation φ = 1.028, (c) second quadrant negative rotation, φ = -0.843, (d) third quadrant, negative rotation φ = -0.314, (e) fourth quadrant, negative rotation φ = 0.165

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Fig. 8

Circumferentially averaged flow paths for second quadrant operation in a reconstruction of the compressor of Gamache and Greitzer [6] at φ = -0.120

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Fig. 9

First quadrant velocity components downstream of the second stage rotor as a function of radius at φ = 0.508 (design point) (a) axial and (b) tangential

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Fig. 10

Fourth quadrant, positive rotation velocity components as a function of radius at φ = 1.028 (a) axial and (b) tangential

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Fig. 11

Fourth quadrant, positive rotation velocity triangles for first stage rotor at hub and tip φ = 1.028

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Fig. 12

Second quadrant, negative rotation velocity components at downstream of second stage rotor as a function of radius at φ = -0.843 (a) axial and (b) tangential

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Fig. 13

Third quadrant velocity components downstream of second stage rotor as a function of radius at φ = -0.220 (a) axial and (b) tangential

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Fig. 14

Fourth quadrant, negative rotation velocity components at downstream of second stage rotor as a function of radius at φ = -0.165 (a) axial and (b) tangential

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Fig. 15

Time series of axial velocity contours downstream of first stage stator at first quadrant design point, φ = 0.508

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Fig. 16

Time series of axial velocity contours at position S1 for fourth quadrant, positive rotation at φ = 1.028

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Fig. 17

Time series of axial velocity contours downstream of first stage stator at second quadrant, positive rotation; φ = -0.340

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Fig. 18

Time series of axial velocity contours downstream of first stage stator for second quadrant, negative rotation at φ = -0.843

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Fig. 19

Time series of axial velocity contours downstream of the first stage stator at φ = -0.220

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Fig. 20

Time series of axial velocity contours downstream of the first stage stator at φ = 0.165

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Fig. 21

Instantaneous entropy distribution, normalized relative to inlet, on constant radius surface at midspan (a) first quadrant design point φ=0.508, (b) fourth quadrant, positive rotation φ = 1.028, (c) second quadrant, negative rotation, φ = -0.843, (d) third quadrant, negative rotation φ = -0.314, (e) fourth quadrant, negative rotation φ = 0.165

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