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Research Papers

The Effect of Inlet Guide Vanes on Inlet Flow Distortion Transfer and Transonic Fan Stability

[+] Author and Article Information
M. J. Shaw

Whittle Laboratory,
University of Cambridge,
1 JJ Thomson Avenue,
Cambridge CB3 0DY, UK
e-mail: mjs214@cam.ac.uk

P. Hield

Rolls-Royce plc,
Bristol BS34 7QE, UK

P. G. Tucker

Whittle Laboratory,
University of Cambridge,
1 JJ Thomson Avenue,
Cambridge CB3 0DY, UK

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received May 22, 2013; final manuscript received June 25, 2013; published online October 10, 2013. Editor: Ronald Bunker.

J. Turbomach 136(2), 021015 (Oct 10, 2013) (9 pages) Paper No: TURBO-13-1081; doi: 10.1115/1.4024906 History: Received May 22, 2013; Revised June 25, 2013

An investigation was carried out into the effects of variable inlet guide vanes (VIGVs) on the performance and stability margin of a transonic fan in the presence of inlet flow distortion. The study was carried out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and validated with experimental data. The capability of CFD to predict the changes in performance with or without VIGVs in the presence of an inlet flow distortion is assessed. Results show that the VIGVs improve the performance and stability margin and do so by reducing the amount of swirl at inlet to the rotor component of the fan.

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References

Wadia, A. R., Szucs, P. N., Crall, D. W., and Rabe, D. C., 2002, “Forward Swept Rotor Studies in Multistage Fans With Inlet Distortion,” ASME Paper No. GT2002-30326. [CrossRef]
Rolls-Royce plc, internal documentation.
Fidalgo, V. J., Hall, C. A., and Colin, Y., 2010, “A Study of Fan-Distortion Interaction Within the NASA Rotor 67 Transonic Stage,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-22914. [CrossRef]
Choi, M., Smith, N. H. S., and Vahdati, M., 2011, “Validation of Numerical Simulations for Rotating Stall in a Transonic Fan,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-46109. [CrossRef]
Pullan, G., Young, A. M., Day, I. J., Greitzer, E. M., and Spakovszky, Z. S., 2012, “Origins and Structure of Spike-Type Rotating Stall,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-68707. [CrossRef]
S-16 Turbine Engine Inlet Flow Distortion Committee, 2002, “SAE ARP1420, Gas Turbine Engine Inlet Flow Distortion Guidelines,” SAE International, Warrendale, PA.
Brandvik, T., and Pullan, G., 2009, “An Accelerated 3D Navier–Stokes Solver for Flows in Turbomachines,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133(2), p. 021025. [CrossRef]
Jameson, A., 1991, “Time Dependent Calculations Using Multigrid, With Applications to Unsteady Flows Past Airfoils and Wings,” AIAA Paper No. 91-1596. [CrossRef]
Spalart, P. R., and Allmaras, S. R., 1994, “A One-Equation Turbulence Model for Aerodynamic Flow,” La Recherche Aerospatiale, 1, pp 5–21.
Vahdati, M., Sayma, A. I., Freeman, C., and Imegrun, M., 2005, “On the Use of Atmospheric Boundary Conditions for Axial-Flow Compressor Stall Simulations,” ASME J. Turbomach., 127, pp. 349–351. [CrossRef]
Longley, J., and Greitzer, E. M., 1992, “Inlet Distortion Effects in Aircraft Propulsion System Integration,” AGARD Lect. Ser., 183, pp. 6-1–6-18.

Figures

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Fig. 1

Computational domain schematic

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Fig. 2

Distortion screen schematic (looking from inlet towards exit)

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Fig. 3

Characteristics for the transonic fan at 90% corrected speed both with and without VIGVs and calculated by CFD and measured through experiment. The mass flow and pressure ratio have been normalized.

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Fig. 4

Radial profile of (a) stagnation pressure and (b) stagnation temperature with VIGVs, with clean inlet flow, normalized by a nominal and consistent value

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Fig. 5

Radial profile of (a) stagnation pressure and (b) stagnation temperature without VIGVs, with clean inlet flow, normalized by a nominal and consistent value

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Fig. 6

Radial profile of (a) stagnation pressure and (b) stagnation temperature at stator leading edge, with VIGVs and inlet distortion (in the middle of the low stagnation pressure sector), normalized by a nominal and consistent value

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Fig. 7

Radial profile of (a) stagnation pressure and (b) stagnation temperature at stator leading edge, without VIGVs, with inlet distortion (in the middle of the low stagnation pressure sector), normalized by a nominal and consistent value

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Fig. 8

Radial profile of (a) stagnation pressure and (b) stagnation temperature at stator leading edge, with VIGVs and inlet distortion (in the middle of the high stagnation pressure sector), normalized by a nominal and consistent value

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Fig. 9

Radial profile of (a) stagnation pressure and (b) stagnation temperature at stator leading edge, without VIGVs, with inlet distortion (in the middle of the high stagnation pressure sector), normalized by a nominal and consistent value

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Fig. 10

Time-averaged circumferential stagnation pressure profiles at ten spanwise positions from the operating point labeled “A” in Fig. 3(a)

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Fig. 11

Time-averaged circumferential stagnation temperature profiles at ten spanwise positions from the operating point labeled “A” in Fig. 3(a)

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Fig. 12

Instantaneous contours of absolute swirl angle at midspan ahead for the configurations with (a) and without (b) VIGVs

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Fig. 13

Absolute swirl angle ahead of rotor (a) with VIGVs and (b) without VIGVs

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Fig. 14

Time-averaged circumferential profiles of local swirl angle near throttle position A at midspan at two axial locations for the configuration, (a) with VIGVs and (b) without VIGVs * for the configuration without VIGV, the same axial location is used as for the configuration with VIGV

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Fig. 15

Normalized local axial velocity ahead of the rotor (a) with VIGVs and (b) without VIGVs

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Fig. 16

Time-averaged relative stagnation pressure ahead of the rotor (a) with VIGVs and (b) without VIGVs

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Fig. 17

Relative stagnation pressure due to induced swirl ahead of the rotor (a) with VIGVs and (b) without VIGVs

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Fig. 18

Inlet (left) and outlet sector shapes for orbital calculations

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Fig. 19

Local operating points around the annulus (orbits) for the configuration with and without VIGVs. Based on the inlet sectors shown in Fig. 18.

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Fig. 20

Flow redistribution schematic

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