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Research Papers

Contactless Shaft Torque Detection for Wide Range Performance Measurement of Exhaust Gas Turbocharger Turbines

[+] Author and Article Information
Bernhardt Lüddecke

IHI Charging Systems International GmbH,
Heidelberg 69126, Germany
e-mail: b.lueddecke@ihi-csi.de

Dietmar Filsinger

IHI Charging Systems International GmbH,
Heidelberg 69126, Germany
e-mail: d.filsinger@ihi-csi.de

Jan Ehrhard

IHI Charging Systems International GmbH,
Heidelberg 69126, Germany
e-mail: j.ehrhard@ihi-csi.de

Bastian Steinacher, Christian Seene

NCTEngineering GmbH,
Unterhaching 82008, Germany

Michael Bargende

Institute for Internal Combustion Engines
and Automotive Engineering,
University of Stuttgart,
Stuttgart 70569, Germany

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received July 18, 2013; final manuscript received September 24, 2013; published online December 10, 2013. Editor: Ronald Bunker.

J. Turbomach 136(6), 061022 (Dec 10, 2013) (8 pages) Paper No: TURBO-13-1162; doi: 10.1115/1.4025824 History: Received July 18, 2013; Revised September 24, 2013

Turbochargers develop away from an auxiliary component—being “off the shelve”—towards an integrated component of the internal combustion engine. Hence, increased attention is paid to the accuracy of the measured turbine and compressor maps. Especially turbine efficiency measurement under engine-relevant operating conditions (pulsed flow) is recently receiving increased attention in the respective research community. Despite various turbine map extrapolation methods, sufficient accuracy of the input test data is indispensable. Accurate experimental data are necessary to achieve high quality extrapolation results, enabling a wide range and precise prediction of turbine behavior under unsteady flow conditions, determined by intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine. The present work describes the first application of a contactless shaft torque measurement technique—based on magnetostriction—to a small automotive turbocharger. The contactless torque measuring system is presented in detail and sensor principle as well as sensor calibration are illustrated. A sensitivity study regarding sensor position influences onto sensor signal proves the robustness and very good repeatability of the system. In the second part of the paper, steady state experimental results from operation on a conventional hot gas test stand over a wide map range are presented. These results are validated against full turbine stage (adiabatic as well as diabatic) CFD results as well as against “cold” efficiency measurements, based on measured inlet and outlet temperatures. The influence and relevance of bearing friction for such measurements is underlined and the improvements on this matter—achieved by direct torque measurement—are demonstrated.

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References

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Trémolet de Lacheisserie, E., 1993, Magnetostriction—Theory and Applications of Magnetoelasticity, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of primary sensor: magnetic tracks coded into one shaft and detector coils close to surface [11,12]

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Fig. 2

Turbine rotor with highlighted primary sensor zone

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Fig. 3

Calibration result of torque measuring system

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Fig. 4

Moving directions of distance variations carried out for the sensitivity studies

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Fig. 5

Results of axial and radial variation of relative position of primary sensor (coil-board) and secondary sensor (turbine shaft) position

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Fig. 6

Cold validation results: comparison of evaluated turbine efficiency based on three different procedures

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Fig. 7

Cross-sectional view of fully integrated torque measuring system

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Fig. 8

Hot validation results: measured efficiencies versus adiabatic CFD data

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Fig. 9

Measured and calculated ideal and real turbine stage powers

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Fig. 10

Quantitative correction of diabatic and bearing frictional effects

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Fig. 11

Extended turbine map data range by turbine inlet temperature variation

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Fig. 12

Contour plot of turbine stage efficiency based on torque measurement results

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Fig. 13

Contour plot of turbine stage efficiency based on CFD results

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