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Research Papers

Map Width Enhancement Technique for a Turbocharger Compressor

[+] Author and Article Information
Subenuka Sivagnanasundaram, Stephen Spence, Juliana Early

School of Mechanical & Aerospace Eng.,
Queen's University,
Belfast, UK

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received August 17, 2012; final manuscript received September 23, 2012; published online November 8, 2013. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Turbomach 136(6), 061002 (Nov 08, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: TURBO-12-1175; doi: 10.1115/1.4007895 History: Received August 17, 2012; Revised September 23, 2012

This paper presents an investigation of map width enhancement and the performance improvement of a turbocharger compressor using a series of static vanes in the annular cavity of a classical bleed slot system. The investigation has been carried out using both experimental and numerical analysis. The compressor stage used for this study is from a turbocharger unit used in heavy duty diesel engines of approximately 300 kW. Two types of vanes were designed and added to the annular cavity of the baseline classical bleed slot system. The purpose of the annular cavity vane technique is to remove some of the swirl that can be carried through the bleed slot system, which would influence the pressure ratio. In addition to this, the series of cavity vanes provides a better guidance to the slot recirculating flow before it mixes with the impeller main inlet flow. Better guidance of the flow improves the mixing at the inducer inlet in the circumferential direction. As a consequence, the stability of the compressor is improved at lower flow rates and a wider map can be achieved. The impact of two cavity vane designs on the map width and performance of the compressor was highlighted through a detailed analysis of the impeller flow field. The numerical and experimental study revealed that an effective vane design can improve the map width and pressure ratio characteristic without an efficiency penalty compared to the classical bleed slot system without vanes. The comparison study between the cavity vane and noncavity vane configurations presented in this paper showed that the map width was improved by 14.3% due to a significant reduction in surge flow and the peak pressure ratio was improved by 2.25% with the addition of a series of cavity vanes in the annular cavity of the bleed slot system.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Effect of swirl component on incidence at inducer inlet

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Fig. 2

Schematic of full stage compressor flow passage [11]

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Fig. 3

Schematic of turbocharger test facility in the Turbomachinery Laboratory at Queen's University Belfast

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Fig. 4

Compressor housing of the turbocharger unit tested

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Fig. 5

Comparison of pressure ratio characteristic of the baseline compressor with and without bleed slot system

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Fig. 6

Comparison of efficiency characteristic of the baseline compressor with and without slot

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Fig. 7

Surge flow improvement with the baseline bleed slot by comparison with the nonbleed slot stage

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Fig. 8

Velocity contour plot superimposed with velocity vectors within the slot and cavity passages for the baseline slot at choke flow rate (100% speed)

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Fig. 9

Velocity contour plot superimposed with velocity vectors within the slot and cavity passages for the baseline slot at surge flow rate (100% speed)

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Fig. 10

Pressure ratio characteristic of the compressor with baseline slot

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Fig. 11

Efficiency-mass flow characteristic of the baseline compressor with baseline slot

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Fig. 12

Slot flow variation against the stage flow rate

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Fig. 13

Absolute circumferential velocity component in the baseline slot configuration at surge flow (100% speed)

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Fig. 14

Comparison of map width of the baseline compressor with and without bleed slot

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Fig. 15

Schematic of the model shows the vane location

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Fig. 16

Two cavity vane models (CVD1 and CVD2)

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Fig. 17

Comparison of pressure ratio characteristic for the straight cavity vane configuration

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Fig. 18

Comparison efficiency characteristic for the straight cavity vane configuration

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Fig. 19

Comparison of pressure ratio characteristics for the curved cavity vane configuration

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Fig. 20

Comparison of efficiency characteristics for the curved cavity vane configuration

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Fig. 21

Velocity vector at the mid-span of the cavity vane passage representing the flow alignment with straight vanes at surge

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Fig. 22

Velocity vector at the mid-span of the cavity vaned passage representing the flow alignment with curved vanes at surge

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Fig. 27

Incidence angle variations at predicted surge point

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Fig. 26

Inlet swirl variations at predicted surge point

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Fig. 28

Axial velocity variations at predicted surge point

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Fig. 29

Map width comparisons between baseline and two cavity vane models

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Fig. 25

Shroud static pressure measurements and predictions at 100% speed (streamwise location 0–2 (Fig. 2))

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Fig. 24

Slot flow variations

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Fig. 23

Slot flow variations

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