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Research Papers

A New Loss and Deviation Model for Axial Compressor Inlet Guide Vanes

[+] Author and Article Information
Milan Banjac

e-mail: mbbanjac@mas.bg.ac.rs

Milan V. Petrovic

e-mail: mpetrovic@mas.bg.ac.rs
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Belgrade,
Belgrade, Serbia

Alexander Wiedermann

MAN Diesel & Turbo SE,
Oberhausen, Germany
e-mail: alexander.wiedermann@man.eu

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received September 13, 2013; final manuscript received October 15, 2013; published online January 2, 2014. Editor: Ronald Bunker.

J. Turbomach 136(7), 071011 (Jan 02, 2014) (13 pages) Paper No: TURBO-13-1217; doi: 10.1115/1.4025956 History: Received September 13, 2013; Revised October 15, 2013

This paper describes a new universal algebraic model for the estimation of flow deflection and losses in axial compressor inlet guide vane devices. The model deals with nominal flow and far-off-design operating conditions in connection with large stagger angle adjustments. The first part of the model considers deflection and losses in 2D cascades, taking into account the main cascade geometry parameters and operating conditions, such as Mach number and stagger adjustment. The second part of the model deals with additional deviation and losses due to secondary flow caused by the end wall viscous effects and by the trailing vortices. The model is developed for NACA65 airfoils, NACA63-A4K6 airfoils, and airfoils having an NACA65 thickness distribution on a circular-arc camber line. It is suitable for application in 1D or 2D through-flow calculations for design and analysis cases. The development of the method is based on systematic computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow calculations for various cascade geometries and operating parameters. The comparison of correlation results with experimental data for several test cases shows good agreement.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
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References

Lieblein, S., 1950, “Turning Angle Design Rules for Constant-Thickness Circular-Arc Guide Vanes in Axial Annular Flow,” Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, OH, Paper No. NACA TN 2179.
Zimmey, C. M., and Lappi, V. M., 1945, “Data for Design of Entrance Vanes From Two Dimensional Tests of Airfoils in Cascade,” NACA Advance Confidential Report L5G18.
Waltke, U., 1995, “Berechnung des Meridianströmungsfeldes in Axialverdichtern mit der Methode der Finiten Elemente,” Fortschritt-Berichte VDI Reihe 7 Nr. 261, VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf, Germany.
Petrovic, M. V., Wiedermann, A., and Banjac, M., 2009, “Development and Validation of a New Universal Throughflow Method for Axial Compressors,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59938. [CrossRef]
Lieblein, S., 1965, “Experimental Flow in Two-Dimensional Cascades,” Aerodynamic Design of Axial-Flow Compressors, I. A.Johnsen and R. O.Bullock, eds., NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, NASA SP-36, pp. 183–225.
Drela, M., and Youngren, H., 1998, A User's Guide to MISES, MIT Computational Aerospace Sciences Laboratory, Cambridge, MA.
Bruna, D., Turner, M. G., and Cravero, C., 2006, “The Development of an Aerodynamic Performance Prediction Tool for Modern Axial Flow Compressor Profiles,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-90187. [CrossRef]
Pfitzinger, W. E., 1998, “Kennfeldberechnung für Axialverdichter mit systematischer Untersuchung der Verlust und Umlenkeigenschaften von Schaufelgittern,” Fortschritt-Berichte VDI Reihe 7 Nr. 337, VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf, Germany.
Camp, T. R., and Shin, H.-W., 1995, “Turbulence Intensity and Length Scale Measurements in Multistage Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117, pp. 38–46. [CrossRef]
Aungier, H. R., 2003, Axial-Flow Compressors, ASME Press, New York.
Dunavant, C. J., 1957, “Cascade Investigation of a Related Series of 6-Percent-Thick Guide-Vane Profiles,” Langley Aeronautical Laboratory, Langley Field, VA, NACA TN 3959.
Mattiske, B., 1994, “Experimentelle Untersuchung einer mehrstufigen Axialverdichterbeschufelung mit Randzonen-Korrektur,” Fortschritt-Berichte, VDI Reihe 7, Nr. 252, VDI-Verlag, Düsseldorf, Germany.
Lieblein, S., and Ackley, R. H., 1951, “Secondary Flows in Annular Cascades and Effects on Flow in Inlet Guide Vanes,” Lewis Flight Laboratory, Cleveland, OH, NACA RM E51G27.
Hirsch, C., and Denton, J. D., 1981, “Through Flow Calculations in Axial Turbomachines,” AGARD-AR-175, pp. 229–255.
D'Ippolito, G., Dossena, V., Mora, A., 2011, “The Influence of Blade Lean on Straight and Annular Turbine Cascade Flow Field,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133(1), p. 011013.
Mahoney, J. J., Dugan, P. D., Budinger, R. E., and Goelzer, F. H., 1950, “Investigation of Blade-Row Flow Distributions in Axial-Flow-Compressor Stage Consisting of Guide Vanes and Rotor-Blade Row,” Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, OH, NACA RM E50G12.
Graham, R. C., and Tysl, E. R., 1949, “Performance of Axial-Flow Supersonic Compressor of XJ55-FF-1 Turbojet Engine II—Performance of Inlet Guide Vanes as Separate Component,” NACA, Washington, DC, NACA RM SE9E03.
Lawrence, J. J., and Theodore, E. F., 1957, “Experimental Investigation of Performance of Single-Stage Transonic Compressor With Guide Vanes Turning Counter to Direction of Rotor Whirl,” Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory, Cleveland, OH, NACA RM E57B04.

Figures

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Fig. 4

Results of MISES calculations for the reference incidence—circular camber line airfoils with NACA65 thickness

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Fig. 3

Results of MISES calculations for the reference incidence—NACA65 airfoil cascade

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Fig. 2

MISES calculation grid for NACA65 cascade

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Fig. 1

Two-dimensional IGV cascade geometry

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Fig. 5

Deviation correction for blade thickness, NACA65 airfoil cascade with 40 deg camber angle

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Fig. 6

MISES calculation grid for NACA63 A4K6 cascade

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Fig. 7

Results of MISES calculations for the reference incidence—NACA63 A4K6 airfoil cascade

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Fig. 8

Additional deviations due to stagger angle adjustment

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Fig. 12

Exit plane and blade circulation

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Fig. 9

Grid for twisted IGV blades of the LUH three-stage compressor

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Fig. 10

IGV exit flow angle of the LUH three-stage compressor

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Fig. 11

Grid for CFD 2D cascade flow calculations

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Fig. 13

Single vortex filament ray and the model for a linear cascade

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Fig. 17

Model of a linear cascade

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Fig. 14

Exit plane nomenclature (left) and radius nomenclature (right)

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Fig. 15

Induced deviation for a row with an approximately constant exit flow angle over the span for IGVs of the Sulzer four-stage compressor

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Fig. 16

Induced deviation for a row with highly twisted blades and spanwise increase of blade circulation

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Fig. 18

Basic distribution of the additional deviation

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Fig. 22

Deviation prediction—the developed correlation and experimental data for IGVs consisting of thin sheet plates, test case 3

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Fig. 21

Comparison between the developed correlation and CFD results—LUH three-stage compressor IGV deviations (test case 2)

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Fig. 19

Correlation for secondary flow deviations applied to a 3D cascade

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Fig. 20

Deviation prediction: the developed correlation and CFD results for Sulzer four-stage compressor IGVs (test case 1)

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Fig. 24

IGV exit angle—comparison of the correlation and experimental data for test case 5

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Fig. 23

Exit flow angle: comparison between the correlation and experimental data for test case 4

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Fig. 25

Loss coefficient for Sulzer four-stage compressor IGV, test case 1

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Fig. 26

Loss coefficient for LUH three-stage compressor IGV, test case 2

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Fig. 27

Streamlines for induced secondary flow (a) and pitchwise distribution for the x component of induced velocity (b), H/s = 2

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Fig. 28

Velocity cxind; comparison between the local, trailing edge value and pitchwise averaged value. Cascade with H/s = 2.

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Fig. 29

Variation of averaging and amplification factors together over the blade span

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