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Research Papers

Unsteady Half-Annulus Computational Fluid Dynamics Calculations of Thermal Migration Through a Cooled 2.5 Stage High-Pressure Turbine

[+] Author and Article Information
James A. Tallman

General Electric Global Research,
Niskayuna, NY 12309

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received June 30, 2013; final manuscript received December 31, 2013; published online February 18, 2014. Editor: Ronald Bunker.

J. Turbomach 136(8), 081012 (Feb 18, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: TURBO-13-1119; doi: 10.1115/1.4026507 History: Received June 30, 2013; Revised December 31, 2013

This paper presents an industrial perspective on the potential use of multiple-airfoil row unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations in high-pressure turbine design cycles. A sliding-mesh unsteady CFD simulation is performed for a high-pressure turbine section of a modern aviation engine at conditions representative of engine take-off. The turbine consists of two stages plus a center-frame strut upstream of the low-pressure turbine. The airfoil counts per row are such that a half-annulus model domain must be simulated for periodicity. The total model domain size is 170 MM computational grid points and the solution requires approximately nine days of clock time on 6288 processing cores of a Cray XE6 supercomputer. Airfoil and endwall cooling flows are modeled via source term additions to the flow. The endwall flowpath cavities and their purge/leakage flows are resolved in the computational meshes to an extent. The time-averaged temperature profile solution is compared with static rake data taken in engine tests. The unsteady solution shows a considerable improvement in agreement with the rake data, compared with a steady-state solution using circumferential mixing planes. Passage-to-passage variations in the gas temperature prediction are present in the 2nd stage, due to nonperiodic alignment between the nozzle vanes and rotor blades. These passage-to-passage differences are quantified and contrasted.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Computational domain description (note: the geometry in this figure has been distorted from its true representation)

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Fig. 2

Spanwise profiles of absolute total temperature at the center-frame strut exit: steady and unsteady computations versus engine data

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Fig. 3

Instantaneous entropy solution at the midspan stream-tube: (a) 2nd stage nozzle staggered between 1st stage nozzle wakes, and (b) 2nd stage nozzle aligned with 1st stage nozzle wake (note: the geometry in this figure has been distorted from its true representation)

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Fig. 4

Time-averaged entropy contour predictions for select 2nd stage nozzle vanes: (left) 1st stage nozzle wake staggered versus the airfoil, and (right) aligned with the airfoil. (a) Staggered, and (b) aligned (note: the geometry in this figure has been distorted from its true representation).

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Fig. 5

Illustration of the convergence metrics for the unsteady CFD solution

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Fig. 6

Subperiod time-averaged solution Range for the absolute total temperature in the stationary frame of reference: (a) staggered, and (b) aligned

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Fig. 7

Subperiod time-averaged solution Drift for the absolute total temperature in the stationary frame of reference: (a) staggered, and (b) aligned

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Fig. 8

Time-averaged normalized absolute total temperature predictions in the stationary frame of reference: (a) staggered, and (b) aligned

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Fig. 9

Passage-to-passage deviation of the time-averaged absolute total temperature: (a) staggered, and (b) aligned

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Fig. 10

Magnitude of the discrete Fourier mode at the passing frequency of the first-stage rotor blade: (a) staggered, and (b) aligned

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Fig. 11

Magnitude of the discrete Fourier mode at the passing frequency of the second-stage rotor blade: (a) staggered, and (b) aligned

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Fig. 12

Normalized deterministic flux of total enthalpy in the radial direction: (a) staggered, and (b) aligned

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Fig. 13

Normalized time-averaged diffusive (laminar and turbulent) energy transport in the radial direction: (a) staggered, and (b) aligned

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Fig. 14

Difference in the time-averaged adiabatic wall temperatures between the staggered and aligned 2nd stage nozzle vane airfoils (note: the geometry in this figure has been distorted from its true representation)

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Fig. 15

Difference in the time-averaged adiabatic wall temperatures between the staggered and aligned 2nd stage rotor blade airfoils (note: the geometry in this figure has been distorted from its true representation)

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