0
Research Papers

Realistic Trench Film Cooling With a Thermal Barrier Coating and Deposition

[+] Author and Article Information
David A. Kistenmacher

Chevron U.S.A., Inc.,
Houston, TX 77210
e-mail: DKistenmacher@Gmail.com

F. Todd Davidson

Graphene Materials, LLC,
Austin, TX 78712
e-mail: DavidsonFT@Gmail.com

David G. Bogard

The University of Texas at Austin,
Austin, TX 78712
e-mail: DBogard@mail.utexas.edu

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received July 22, 2013; final manuscript received January 5, 2014; published online February 27, 2014. Editor: Ronald Bunker.

J. Turbomach 136(9), 091002 (Feb 27, 2014) (12 pages) Paper No: TURBO-13-1166; doi: 10.1115/1.4026613 History: Received July 22, 2013; Revised January 05, 2014

Thermal barrier coatings (TBC) see extensive use in high-temperature gas turbines. However, little work has been done to experimentally characterize the combination of TBC and film cooling. The purpose of this study is to investigate the cooling performance of a thermally conducting turbine vane with a realistic film-cooling trench geometry embedded in TBC. Additionally, the effect of contaminant deposition on the realistic trench was studied. The trench is termed realistic because it takes into account probable manufacturing limitations. The vane model and TBC used for this study were designed to match the thermal behavior of an actual gas turbine vane with TBC by properly scaling their convective heat-transfer coefficients, thermal conductivities, and characteristic length scales. This study built upon previously published results with various film-cooling geometries consisting of round holes, craters, an ideal trench, and a novel trench. The previous study showed that large changes in blowing ratio resulted in negligible effects on cooling performance. Changes to film-cooling geometry also resulted in minor effects on cooling performance. This study found that the realistic trench and an idealized trench perform similarly. However, the width of the realistic trench left the vane wall more exposed to mainstream temperatures, especially at lower film-coolant flow rates. This study also found that the trench designs helped to mitigate deposition formation better than round holes; however, the realistic trench was more prone to deposition within the trench. The overall cooling effectiveness was similar for both trench designs and relatively unchanged from the predeposition performance, while the overall cooling effectiveness for round holes increased due to the additional thermal insulation offered by the unmitigated deposition.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Bogard, D. G., and Thole, K. A., 2006, “Gas Turbine Film Cooling,” J. Propul. Power, 22, pp. 249–270. [CrossRef]
Dees, J. E., Ledezma, G. A., Bogard, D. G., and Laskowski, G. M., 2013, “Overall and Adiabatic Effectiveness Values on a Scaled Up, Simulated Gas Turbine Vane: Part I—Experimental Measurements,” ASME J. Turbomach., 135(5), p. 051017. [CrossRef]
Albert, J. E., and Bogard, D. G., 2013, “Measurements of Adiabatic Film and Overall Cooling Effectiveness on a Turbine Vane Pressure Side With a Trench,” ASME J. Turbomach., 135(5), p. 051007. [CrossRef]
Davidson, F. T., Dees, J. E., and Bogard, D. G., 2011, “An Experimental Study of Thermal Barrier Coatings and Film Cooling on an Internally Cooled Simulated Turbine Vane,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-46604. [CrossRef]
Davidson, F. T., Kistenmacher, D. A., and Bogard, D. G., 2012, “Film Cooling With a Thermal Barrier Coating: Round Holes, Craters, and Trenches,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-70029. [CrossRef]
Bunker, R., 2002, “Film Cooling Effectiveness Due to Discrete Holes Within a Transverse Surface Slot,” ASME Paper No. GT2002-30178. [CrossRef]
Waye, S. K., and Bogard, D. G., 2007, “High Resolution Film Cooling Effectiveness Measurements of Axial Holes Embedded in a Transverse Trench With Various Trench Configurations,” ASME J. Turbomach., 129(2), pp. 294–302. [CrossRef]
Dorrington, J. R., Bogard, D. G., and Bunker, R. S., 2007, “Film Effectiveness Performance for Coolant Holes Embedded in Various Shallow Trench and Crater Depressions,” ASME Paper No. GT2007-27992. [CrossRef]
Bunker, R. S., 2001, “A Method for Improving the Cooling Effectiveness of a Gaseous Coolant Stream,” U.S. Patent 6234755.
Hamed, A., Tabakoff, W., and Wenglarz, R., 2006, “Erosion and Deposition in Turbomachinery,” J. Propul. Power, 22(2), pp. 350–360. [CrossRef]
Crosby, J. M., Lewis, S., Bons, J. P., Ai, W., and Fletcher, T. H., 2008, “Effects of Temperature and Particle Size on Deposition in Land Based Turbines,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 130(5), p. 051503. [CrossRef]
Ai, W., Laylock, R. G., Rappleye, D. S., Fletcher, T. H., and Bons, J. P., 2011, “Effect of Particle Size and Trench Configuration on Deposition From Fine Coal Flyash Near Film Cooling Holes,” Energy Fuels, 25(3), pp. 1066–1076. [CrossRef]
Albert, J. E., Keefe, K. J., and Bogard, D. G., 2013, “Experimental Simulation of Contaminant Deposition on a Film Cooled Turbine Airfoil Leading Edge,” ASME J. Turbomach., 135(5), p. 051008. [CrossRef]
Lawson, S. A., and Thole, K. A., 2012, “Simulations of Multi-Phase Particle Deposition on Endwall Film-Cooling,” ASME J. Turbomach., 134(1), p. 011003. [CrossRef]
Davidson, F. T., Kistenmacher, D. A., and Bogard, D. G., 2012, “A Study of Deposition on a Turbine Vane With a Thermal Barrier Coating and Various Film Cooling Geometries,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-70033. [CrossRef]
Albert, J. E., 2011, “Experimental Simulation and Mitigation of Contaminant Deposition on Film Cooled Gas Turbine Airfoils,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.
Ethridge, M. I., Cutbirth, J. M., and Bogard, D. G., 2000, “Effects of Showerhead Cooling on Turbine Vane Suction Side Film Cooling Effectiveness,” ASME IMECE Conference, Orlando, FL, November 5–10.
Dees, J. E., Ledezma, G. A., Bogard, D. G., Laskowski, G. M., and Tolpadi, A. K., 2012, “Experimental Measurements and Computational Predictions for an Internally Cooled Simulated Turbine Vane,” ASME J. Turbomach., 134(6), p. 061003. [CrossRef]
Shih, T., Chi, K., Ramachandran, P., Ames, R., and Dennis, R., 2010, “The Role of the Biot Number in Turbine-Cooling Design and Analysis,” 2010 DOE UTSR Workshop, Penn State University, State College, PA, October 19–21.
Bunker, R. S., 2009, “The Effects of Manufacturing Tolerances on Gas Turbine Cooling,” ASME J. Turbomach., 131(4), p. 041018. [CrossRef]
Feuerstein, A., Knapp, J., Taylor, T., Ashary, A., Bolcavage, A., and Hitchman, N., 2008, “Technical and Economical Aspects of Current Thermal Barrier Coating Systems for Gas Turbine Engines by Thermal Spray and EBPVD: A Review,” J. Thermal Spray Technol., 17(2), pp. 199–213. [CrossRef]
Padture, N. P., Gell, M., and Jordan, E. H., 2002, “Thermal Barrier Coatings for Gas-Turbine Engine Applications,” Science, 296(5566), pp. 280–284. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Soechting, F. O., 1999, “A Design Perspective on Thermal Barrier Coatings,” J. Thermal Spray Technol., 8(4), pp. 505–511. [CrossRef]
Special Metals Corporation, “Inconel® Alloy X-750 Data Sheet, Publication No. SMC-067,” September 2004, http://www.specialmetals.com
Rigney, D. V., Viguie, R., Wortman, D. J., and Skelly, D. W., 1997, “PVD Thermal Barrier Coating Applications and Process Development for Aircraft Engines,” J. Thermal Spray Technol., 6(2), pp. 167–175. [CrossRef]
Hinds, W. C., 1999, Aerosol Technology: Properties, Behavior, and Measurement of Airborne Particles, 2nd ed., Wiley-Interscience, New York.
Bons, J. P., Crosby, J., Wammack, J. E., Bentley, B. I., and Fletcher, T. H., 2007, “High Pressure Turbine Deposition in Land-Based Gas Turbines From Various Synfuels,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 129(1), pp. 135–143. [CrossRef]
Rezaei, H. R., Gupta, R. P., Bryant, G. W., Hart, J. T., Liu, G. S., Bailey, C. W., Wall, T. F., Miyamae, S., Makino, K., and Endo, Y., 2000, “Thermal Conductivity of Coal Ash and Slags and Models Used,” Fuel, 17(13), pp. 1697–1710. [CrossRef]
Kline, S. J., and McClintock, F. A., 1953, “Describing Uncertainties in Single Sample Experiments,” Mech. Eng., 75, pp. 3–8.
Moffat, R. J., 1988, “Describing the Uncertainties in Experimental Results,” J. Thermal Fluid Sci., 1(1), pp. 3–17. [CrossRef]
Davidson, F. T., 2012, “An Experimental Study of Film Cooling, Thermal Barrier Coatings and Contaminant Deposition on an Internally Cooled Turbine Airfoil Model,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX.
Lewis, S., Barker, B., Bons, J. P., Ai, W., and Fletcher, T. H., 2011, “Film Cooling Effectiveness and Heat Transfer Near Deposit-Laden Film Holes,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133(3), p. 031003. [CrossRef]
Webb, J., Casaday, B., Barker, B., Bons, J. P., Gledhill, A. D., and Padture, N. P., 2013, “Coal Ash Deposition on Nozzle Guide Vanes: Part I—Experimental Characteristics of Four Coal Ash Types,” ASME J. Turbomach., 135(2), p. 021033. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of turbine vane test section

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of secondary flow loop

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Test airfoil schematic

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Vane cross section and s/d locations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Schematics of the various pressure-side cooling-hole designs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Wax spray system schematic [15]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Wax particle sizing micrograph [15]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Photographs of interface thermocouples prior to applying simulated TBC to the vane surface

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Vane wall cross section with TBC and relative location of measurements of interest

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Effect of blowing ratio on ϕ for varying film-cooling designs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Effect of cooling design on ϕ for varying blowing ratio

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Contour plots of τ for varying film-cooling designs and blowing ratios

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Photographs before and after deposition for an ideal trench at M = 2.0

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Contour plots of τ for an ideal trench at M = 2.0 before and after deposition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Photographs before and after deposition for a realistic trench at M = 2.0

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Contour plots of τ for a realistic trench at M = 2.0 before and after deposition

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Effect of deposition on τ for varying film-cooling designs at M = 2.0

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Effect of deposition on ϕ for varying film-cooling designs at M = 2.0

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In