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Research Papers

Industrial Gas Turbine Performance: Compressor Fouling and On-Line Washing

[+] Author and Article Information
Uyioghosa Igie

Energy and Power Division,
Cranfield University,
Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK
e-mail: u.igie@cranfield.ac.uk

Pericles Pilidis, Dimitrios Fouflias, Kenneth Ramsden, Panagiotis Laskaridis

Energy and Power Division,
Cranfield University,
Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received April 16, 2013; final manuscript received May 21, 2014; published online June 24, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Knox T. Millsaps.

J. Turbomach 136(10), 101001 (Jun 24, 2014) (13 pages) Paper No: TURBO-13-1061; doi: 10.1115/1.4027747 History: Received April 16, 2013; Revised May 21, 2014

Industrial gas turbines are susceptible to compressor fouling, which is the deposition and accretion of airborne particles or contaminants on the compressor blades. This paper demonstrates the blade aerodynamic effects of fouling through experimental compressor cascade tests and the accompanied engine performance degradation using turbomatch, an in-house gas turbine performance software. Similarly, on-line compressor washing is implemented taking into account typical operating conditions comparable with industry high pressure washing. The fouling study shows the changes in the individual stage maps of the compressor in this condition, the impact of degradation during part-load, influence of control variables, and the identification of key parameters to ascertain fouling levels. Applying demineralized water for 10 min, with a liquid-to-air ratio of 0.2%, the aerodynamic performance of the blade is shown to improve, however most of the cleaning effect occurred in the first 5 min. The most effectively washed part of the blade was the pressure side, in which most of the particles deposited during the accelerated fouling. The simulation of fouled and washed engine conditions indicates 30% recovery of the lost power due to washing.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

The compressor cascade tunnel

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Fig. 2

The cascade clean blades

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Fig. 3

Upstream and downstream traverse locations

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Fig. 4

Suction and pressure side of the blade (fouled)

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Fig. 5

Downstream nondimensional velocity

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Fig. 6

Normalized downstream static pressure

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Fig. 7

Total pressure loss coefficient

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Fig. 8

Downstream exit flow angles

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Fig. 9

Washing kit: pump (top-left), tank (top-right), nozzle spray (bottom-left), and nozzle on support (bottom-right)

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Fig. 10

Blade suction and pressure side after washing

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Fig. 11

Total pressure loss coefficient (all cases)

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Fig. 12

Exit flow angle (all cases)

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Fig. 13

Three-dimensional losses in an axial stage

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Fig. 14

A simple gas turbine

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Fig. 15

Stage (1) map of pr versus CMF

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Fig. 16

Stage (1) map of efficiency versus CMF

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Fig. 17

Stage (2) map of pr versus CMF

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Fig. 18

Stage (3) map of pr versus CMF

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Fig. 19

Stage (4) map of pr ratio versus CMF

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Fig. 20

Stage (4) map of efficiency versus CMF

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Fig. 21

Percent changes in pressure ratio for various stages

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Fig. 22

Change in performance due to fouling for various fouling stage locations

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Fig. 23

Stage (1) map of pr versus CMF (all case)

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Fig. 24

Percent changes in pr for all stages (degraded)

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Fig. 25

Exit total pressure for stages 1 and 2 (all cases)

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Fig. 26

Exit total pressure for stages 5 and 10 (all cases)

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Fig. 27

Stage (1) map of efficiency versus CMF (all cases)

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Fig. 28

Suction (left) and pressure (right) side of the blade after fouling

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Fig. 29

Blade suction and pressure side after 5 and 10 min of washing, respectively

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