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Research Papers

Numerical Simulation of Aerodynamic Instabilities in a Multistage High-Speed High-Pressure Compressor on Its Test-Rig—Part I: Rotating Stall

[+] Author and Article Information
Flore Crevel

CERFACS/LMFA,
SNECMA Villaroche,
Rond Point René Ravaud-Réau,
Moissy-Cramayel 77550, France
e-mail: flore.crevel@cerfacs.fr

Nicolas Gourdain

CERFACS,
42 Avenue Coriolis,
Toulouse 31057, France;
ISAE, Aerodynamics, Energetic
and Propulsion Department,
10 Avenue Edouard Belin,
Toulouse 31055, France
e-mail: nicolas.gourdain@isae.fr

Stéphane Moreau

Mechanical Engineering,
University of Sherbrooke,
2500 Blvd de l'Université,
Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada
e-mail: stephane.moreau@cerfacs.fr and stephane.moreau@usherbrooke.ca

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received July 26, 2013; final manuscript received June 25, 2014; published online July 22, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Aspi Wadia.

J. Turbomach 136(10), 101003 (Jul 22, 2014) (14 pages) Paper No: TURBO-13-1169; doi: 10.1115/1.4027967 History: Received July 26, 2013; Revised June 25, 2014

Aerodynamic instabilities such as stall and surge may lead to mechanical failures. They can be avoided by better understanding and accurate prediction of the associated flow phenomena. Numerical simulations of rotating stall do not often match well the experiments as the number of cells and/or their rotational speed are not correctly predicted. The volumes surrounding the compressor have known effects on rotating stall flow patterns; therefore, an increased need for more realistic simulations has emerged. In that context, this paper addresses a comparison of numerical stall simulation in a compressor alone with a numerical stall simulation including the additional compressor rig. This study investigates the influence of the upstream and downstream volumes of the compressor rig on the rotating stall flow patterns and the consequences on surge inception in a high-pressure, high-speed research compressor. The numerical simulations were conducted using an implicit, time-accurate, 3D compressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) solver. First, rotating stall is simulated in both configurations, and then the outlet nozzles are further closed to bring the compressors to surge. The numerical results show that when the compressor rig is accounted for, fewer cells develop in the third stage and their rotational speed is slightly higher. The major difference linked to the presence of the rig lays in the existence of a 1D low frequency oscillation of the static pressure, which affects the entire flow and modifies surge inception. The analysis of the results leads to a calculation of the thermo-acoustic modes in the whole configuration, which shows that this low frequency corresponds to the third thermo-acoustic mode of the complete test-rig.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Experimental compressor CREATE

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Fig. 2

Computational domains used for the study of the effects of the volumes around the compressor at near-surge condition

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Fig. 3

Unstructured mesh of the computational domain for the calculation of the thermo-acoustic modes by AVSP

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Fig. 4

Instantaneous flow field of entropy at 83% span in the 2π/8 configuration during rotating stall. The high entropy zones in the last stage correspond to the stall cells.

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Fig. 5

Instantaneous flow field of entropy at 83% span in the 2π/8 configuration during rotating stall. The high entropy zones in the last stage correspond to the stall cells.

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Fig. 6

Time-domain visualization of the flow at 83% span of the compressor. The effect of the stall cells on the pressure signal result in the alternation of low and high pressure zones. Visualization of the 45 deg simulated.

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Fig. 7

Spatiotemporal modes at rotating stall at 83% span at R3-S3 interface (plane 28A) of the isolated compressor

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Fig. 8

Spatiotemporal modes at rotating stall at 83% span in plane 28A of full test-rig configuration

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Fig. 9

Experimental pressure field in plane 28A at rotating stall in the lapse of one rotor revolution. Ten stall cells pass in front of the sensor in one revolution.

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Fig. 11

Analysis of the low frequency wave in the test-rig configuration

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Fig. 12

Helmholtz mode (40.2 Hz) of the test rig

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Fig. 13

Amplitude of the 95.8 Hz wave predicted by AVSP and comparison to the amplitude of the 94 Hz wave predicted by elsA. The waves have a similar axial structure.

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Fig. 14

Influence of the rig on the mass flow rate at surge inception

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