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Research Papers

Development of an Engine Representative Combustor Simulator Dedicated to Hot Streak Generation

[+] Author and Article Information
Charlie Koupper

Turbomeca,
Bordes 64510, France
e-mail: charlie.koupper@turbomeca.fr

Gianluca Caciolli

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: gianluca.caciolli@htc.de.unifi.it

Laurent Gicquel, Florent Duchaine

CFD Team, CERFACS,
Toulouse 31057, France

Guillaume Bonneau

Turbomeca,
Bordes 64510, France

Lorenzo Tarchi, Bruno Facchini

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
Florence 50139, Italy

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received July 21, 2014; final manuscript received July 24, 2014; published online August 26, 2014. Editor: Ronald Bunker.

J. Turbomach 136(11), 111007 (Aug 26, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: TURBO-14-1161; doi: 10.1115/1.4028175 History: Received July 21, 2014; Revised July 24, 2014

Nowadays, the lack of confidence in the prediction of combustor-turbine interactions and more specifically our ability to predict the migration of hot spots through this interface leads to the application of extra safety margins, which are detrimental to an optimized turbine design and efficiency. To understand the physics and flow at this interface, a full 360 deg nonreactive combustor simulator (CS) representative of a recent lean burn chamber together with a 1.5 turbine stage is instrumented at DLR in Gottingen (Germany) within the European project FACTOR. The chamber operates with axial swirlers especially designed to reproduce engine-realistic velocity and temperature distortion profiles, allowing the investigation of the hot streaks transport through the high pressure (HP) stage. First, a true scale three injector annular sector of the CS without turbine is assembled and tested at the University of Florence. To generate the hot steaks, the swirlers are fed by an air flow at 531 K, while the liners are cooled by an effusion system fed with air at ambient temperature. In addition to static pressure taps and thermocouples, the test rig will be equipped with an automatic traverse system which allows detailed measurements at the combustor exit by means of a 5-hole probe, a thermocouple, and hot wire anemometers. This paper presents the design process and instrumentation of the trisector CS, with a special focus on large Eddy simulations (LES) which were widely used to validate the design choices. It was indeed decided to take advantage of the ability and maturity of LES to properly capture turbulence and mixing within combustion chambers, despite an increased computational cost as compared to usual Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) approaches. For preliminary design, simulations of a single periodic sector (representative of the DLR full annular rig) are compared to simulations of the trisector test rig, showing no difference on the central swirler predictions, comforting the choice for the trisector. In parallel, to allow hot wire anemometry (HWA) measurements, the selection of an isothermal operating point, representative of the nominal point, is assessed and validated by use of LES.

Copyright © 2014 by ASME
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Maximum and minimum temperature relative to the mean temperature at vane inlet for hot streak simulators

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Fig. 2

Target fields in plane 40 (view from upstream), (a) T/T¯40, (b) velocity vectors, (c) swirl angle (deg), and (d) pitch angle (deg)

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Fig. 3

Schematic view of the CS: the multiperforated liner is shown in color, and the inner and outer feeding cavities are not shown (see color version online)

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Fig. 4

Swirler velocity profiles

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Fig. 5

Domain of the monosector and trisector simulations

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Fig. 6

Nondimensional axial velocity U∕Uref in the central plane

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Fig. 7

Axial velocity U∕Uref along the centerline (x axis)

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Fig. 8

Circumferentially averaged profiles of swirl and pitch angle in plane 40

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Fig. 9

Nondimensional turbulent kinetic energy k/Uref2, (a) central plane β = 0 deg and (b) periodicity plane β = 9 deg

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Fig. 10

Nondimensional temperature field (T/T¯40) in plane 40

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Fig. 11

Streamlines emitted from each swirler toward plane 40 in the trisector

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Fig. 12

Circumferentially averaged profile of total temperature in plane 40

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Fig. 13

Temperature fluctuations Trms (K), (a) central plane β = 0 deg and (b) plane 40

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Fig. 14

Mass flow, pressure map with lines conserving the nondimensional parameters of the test rig

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Fig. 15

Circumferentially averaged profiles of swirl and pitch angle in plane 40

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Fig. 16

Nondimensional turbulent kinetic energy k/Uref2, (a) central plane β = 0 deg and (b) periodicity plane β = 9 deg

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Fig. 17

Turbulence intensity TU = (2/3)k/‖u‖ in plane 40

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Fig. 18

PSD of the pressure signal of a probe located inside the duct for the three simulations

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Fig. 19

Sketch of the test facility

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Fig. 20

Sector test rig and detail of the swirlers (upstream view)

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Fig. 21

Preliminary test: warm up of the test rig, (a) fluid and metal temperatures and (b) mass flow rates and pressures across the swirlers

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