Research Papers

Quantitative Computational Fluid Dynamics Analyses of Particle Deposition on a Transonic Axial Compressor Blade—Part I: Particle Zones Impact

[+] Author and Article Information
Alessio Suman, Nicola Aldi, Michele Pinelli, Pier Ruggero Spina

Dipartimento di Ingegneria,
Università degli Studi di Ferrara,
Ferrara 44122, Italy

Rainer Kurz

Solar Turbines Incorporated,
San Diego, CA 92123

Mirko Morini

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale,
Università degli Studi di Parma,
Parma 43121, Italy

Klaus Brun

Southwest Research Institute,
San Antonio, TX 78228

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received July 21, 2014; final manuscript received August 4, 2014; published online September 30, 2014. Editor: Ronald Bunker.

J. Turbomach 137(2), 021009 (Sep 30, 2014) (14 pages) Paper No: TURBO-14-1159; doi: 10.1115/1.4028295 History: Received July 21, 2014; Revised August 04, 2014

Solid particle ingestion is one of the principal degradation mechanisms in the turbine and compressor sections of gas turbines. In particular, in industrial applications, the microparticles that are not captured by the air filtration system cause fouling and, consequently, a performance drop of the compressor. This paper presents three-dimensional numerical simulations of the microparticle ingestion (0 μm–2 μm) on an axial compressor rotor carried out by means of a commercial computational fluid dynamic (CFD) code. Particles of this size can follow the main air flow with relatively little slip, while being impacted by flow turbulence. It is of great interest to the industry to determine which areas of the compressor airfoils are impacted by these small particles. Particle trajectory simulations use a stochastic Lagrangian tracking method that solves the equations of motion separate from the continuous phase. Then, the NASA Rotor 37 is considered as a case study for the numerical investigation. The compressor rotor numerical model and the discrete phase treatment have been validated against the experimental and numerical data available in literature. The number of particles, sizes, and concentrations are specified in order to perform a quantitative analysis of the particle impact on the blade surface. The results show that microparticles tend to follow the flow by impacting at full span with a higher impact concentration on the pressure side (PS). The suction side (SS) is affected only by the impact of the smaller particles (up to 1 μm). Particular fluid dynamic phenomena, such as separation, stagnation point, and tip leakage vortex, strongly influence the impact location of the particles.

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Fig. 1

Combination of filtration mechanism to obtain filter efficiency at various particle sizes [2]

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Fig. 2

NASA Rotor 37 numerical domain: (a) single passage vane, (b) the mesh on the blade surface, and (c) the mesh at the inlet surface

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Fig. 3

Comparison between the experimental results (Exp.) [20] and the CFD results

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Fig. 4

Capture efficiency ηhit and Stokes number St versus particle diameter dp

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Fig. 5

DPM concentrations (kg/m3), PS and SS

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Fig. 6

Average DPM concentration and total mass flow mp versus particle diameter dp

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Fig. 10

Impact strip concentrations ΧSTRIP

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Fig. 11

Particle distributions ΧSLICE, 2nd, 6th, and 10th strip, case 1

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Fig. 12

Shear stress and deposition contour plots ΧSLICE,SS with the separation line superimposed, case 1

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Fig. 13

Spanwise subdivision (left side) and overall impact patterns





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