Research Papers

The Dual Mechanisms and Implementations of Stability Enhancement With Discrete Tip Injection in Axial Flow Compressors

[+] Author and Article Information
Jichao Li

Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy and Power,
Institute of Engineering Thermophysics,
Beijing 100190, China
e-mail: lijichao@iet.cn

Feng Lin

Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy and Power,
Institute of Engineering Thermophysics,
Beijing 100190, China
e-mail: linfeng@iet.cn

Zhiting Tong, Chaoqun Nie, Jingyi Chen

Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy and Power,
Institute of Engineering Thermophysics,
Beijing 100190, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received July 27, 2014; final manuscript received August 3, 2014; published online October 7, 2014. Editor: Ronald Bunker.

J. Turbomach 137(3), 031010 (Oct 07, 2014) (10 pages) Paper No: TURBO-14-1183; doi: 10.1115/1.4028299 History: Received July 27, 2014; Revised August 03, 2014

The mechanisms and implementation scheme of discrete tip air injection are studied in this paper. A map that summarized the routes to stall is then proposed. It is argued that there exists a critical tip clearance ratio that separates two different routes to stall, which infers that the stability enhancement can also be based on two different mechanisms. A summation of tip injection test data in the literatures demonstrates that this is actually the case. For each compressor, there are two trends in the curve of stall margin improvement (SMI) versus injected momentum ratio, which is separated by a demarcation ratio of injected momentum. A series of tests are done in a low-speed compressor to show that the micro injection, wherein the injected momentum ratio is less than the demarcation ratio, can only act on the tip leakage flow (TLF) and thus provide small SMI by weakening the self-induced unsteadiness of the tip leakage flow (UTLF), while in contrast the macro injection can provide much larger SMI by acting on the main flow, decreasing the inlet angle-of-attack and thus unloading the blade tip. Based on these findings, a novel detecting-actuating scheme is designed and implemented onto a low-speed axial compressor. A cross-correlation coefficient is used to detect the UTLF in the prestall process way before stall inception and then to guide the opening of proportional electromagnetic valves. The injected flow rate can be smoothly varied to cover both micro- and macro-injection, which saves energy when the compressor is stable, and provides protection when it is needed. The same principle is applied to a high-speed compressor with a recirculation injection and the preliminary test results are very encouraging.

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Fig. 1

Routes to stall in axial flow compressor [20]

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Fig. 2

Instantaneous flow structure at which the TLF spilled out of blade passage and form 3D vortices. (a) Instantaneous pressure contours and streamlines and (b) instantaneous streaklines of the 3D tornadolike vortex, vortex B in (a).

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Fig. 3

Summary of different experimental data

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Fig. 4

The placement of the casing Kulite sensors

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Fig. 5

SMI as a function of injected axial momentum/free stream momentum in different compressor

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Fig. 6

Radial distribution of total pressure at rotor outlet with injection momentum ratio at point B

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Fig. 7

(a) The spanwise distribution of diffusion factor and (b) the spanwise distribution of incidence angle of incoming flow

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Fig. 8

RMS with different injected mass flow when the flow coefficient is 0.47. (a) No-injection; (b) point A; and (c) point B.

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Fig. 9

PSD with different injected mass flow ratios when the flow coefficient is 0.5

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Fig. 10

The RMS and PSD of the unsteady pressure at the near stall point with macro injection (a) RMS and (b) PSD of CH5

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Fig. 11

The cross-correlation analysis and the corresponding cumulative probability distribution with different flow coefficients

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Fig. 12

Schematic of sensing and actuating system for the tip air injection

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Fig. 13

Compressor characteristic lines with different injection methods

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Fig. 14

Comparison of injected mass flow ratios among different types of air injection

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Fig. 15

Characteristic lines with different injection yaw angles

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Fig. 16

Efficiency lines with different injection yaw angles



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