Research Papers

Experimental Investigation on Droplet Behavior in a Transonic Compressor Cascade

[+] Author and Article Information
Niklas Neupert

Laboratory of Turbomachinery,
Department of Power Engineering,
Helmut-Schmidt University,
Hamburg 22043, Germany
e-mail: neupert@hsu-hh.de

Birger Ober

Laboratory of Turbomachinery,
Department of Power Engineering,
Helmut-Schmidt University,
Hamburg 22043, Germany

Franz Joos

Laboratory of Turbomachinery,
Department of Power Engineering,
Helmut-Schmidt University,
Hamburg 22043, Germany
e-mail: joos@hsu-hh.de

Modified for clarity in this context.

The characteristic length for the Reynolds number and the Weber number is set to be the boundary layer thickness

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received July 25, 2014; final manuscript received August 4, 2014; published online October 7, 2014. Editor: Ronald Bunker.

J. Turbomach 137(3), 031009 (Oct 07, 2014) (8 pages) Paper No: TURBO-14-1180; doi: 10.1115/1.4028351 History: Received July 25, 2014; Revised August 04, 2014

In recent years, overspray fogging has become a powerful means for power augmentation of industrial gas turbines (GT). Most of the studies concerning this topic focus on the problem from a thermodynamic point of view. Only a few studies, however, were undertaken to investigate the droplet behavior in the flow channel of a compressor. In this paper, results of experimental investigation of a water laden flow through a transonic compressor cascade are presented. A finely dispersed spray was used in the measurements (D10 < 10 μm). Results of the droplet behavior are shown in terms of shadowgraphy images and images of the blade surface film pattern. The angle of attack, the incoming velocity, and the water load were varied. The qualitative observations are related to laser Doppler and phase Doppler anemometer (LDA/PDA) data taken in the flow channel and at the outlet of the cascade. The data represent a base for numerical and mean line models of two-phase compressor flow.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


AGARD, 1995, “Recommended Practices for the Assessment of the Effects of Atmospheric Water Ingestion on the Performance and Operability of Gas Turbine Engines,” AGARD, Neuilly sur Seine, France.
Obermüller, M., Schmidt, K., Schulte, H., and Peitsch, D., 2012, “Some Aspects on Wet Compression—Physical Effects and Modeling Strategies Used in Engine Performance Tools,” Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrtkongress, Berlin, Sept. 10–12, Paper No. DLRK-2012-281210.
Bhargava, R., Meher-Homji, C., Chaker, M., Bianchi, M., Melino, F., Peretto, A., and Ingistov, S., 2007, “Gas Turbine Fogging Technology: A State-of-the-Art Review: Part I–Part III,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 129(2), pp. 443–472. [CrossRef]
Hill, P., 1963, “Aerodynamic and Thermodynamic Effects on Coolant Injection on Axial Compressors,” Aeronaut. Q., 14(Nov.), pp. 331–348.
Härtel, C., and Pfeiffer, P., 2003, “Model Analysis of High-Fogging Effects on the Work of Compression,” ASME Paper No. GT2003-38117. [CrossRef]
Horlock, J. H., 2001, “Compressor Performance With Water Injection,” ASME Turbo Expo, ASME Paper No. 2001-GT-0343. [CrossRef]
Zheng, Q., Sun, Y., Li, S., and Wang, Y., 2003, “Thermodynamic Analyses of Wet Compression Process in the Compressor of Gas Turbine,” ASME J. Turbomach., 125(3), pp. 489–496. [CrossRef]
Brun, K., Gonzales, L., and Plat, J., 2008, “Impact of Continuous Inlet Fogging and Overspray Operation on GE 5002 Gas Turbine Life and Performance,” ASME Paper No. GT2008-50207. [CrossRef]
Matz, C., Kappis, W., Cataldi, G., Mundinger, G., Bischoff, S., Helland, E., and Ripken, M., 2008, “Prediction of Evaporative Effects Within the Blading of an Industrial Axial Compressor,” ASME Paper No. GT2008-50166. [CrossRef]
Day, I., Williams, J., and Freeman, C., 2005, “Rain Ingestion in Axial Flow Compressors at Part Speed,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68582. [CrossRef]
Bettocchi, R., Morini, M., Pinelli, M., Spina, P., Venturini, M., and Torsello, G., 2011, “Setup of an Experimental Facility for the Investigation of Wet Compression on a Multistage Compressor,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 133(10), p. 102001. [CrossRef]
Ulrichs, E. S., 2007, “Experimental Investigations Into the Behavior and Influence of Water Droplets in a Compressor Cascade Flow,” Ph.D. thesis, Helmut-Schmidt-Universität/Universität der Bundeswehr Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
Eisfeld, T., and Joos, F., 2009, “Experimental Investigation of Two-Phase Flow Phenomena in Transonic Compressor Cascades,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59365. [CrossRef]
Lefebvre, A., 1989, Atomisation and Sprays (Combustion), 1st ed., Taylor & Francis, New York.
Pilch, M., and Erdman, C. A., 1987, “Use of Breakup Time Data and Velocity History Data to Predict the Maximum Size of Stable Fragments for Acceleration-Induced Breakup of a Liquid Drop,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 13(6), pp. 741–757. [CrossRef]
Schmehl, R., 2003, “Tropfendeformation und Nachzerfall bei der technischen Gemischaufbereitung,” Ph.D. thesis, Universität Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany.
Samenfink, W., Elsäßer, A., Dillenkopf, K., and Wittig, S., 1999, “Droplet Interaction With Shear-Driven Liquid Films: Analysis of Deposition and Secondary Droplet Characteristics,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 20(5), pp. 462–469. [CrossRef]
Ober, B., and Joos, F., 2013, “Experimental Investigation on Aerodynamic Behavior of a Compressor Cascade in Droplet Laden Flow,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-94731. [CrossRef]
Eisfeld, T., and Joos, F., 2009, “New Boundary Layer Treatment Methods for Compressor Cascades,” 8th European Conference of Turbomachinery (EUROTURBO 8), Graz, Austria, Mar. 23–27, pp. 879–888.
AGARDograph, 1993, “Advanced Methods for Cascade Testing: Méthodes avancëes pour les essais des grilles d'aubes,” NATO, Neuilly sur Seine, France, Technical Report No. AGARD-AG-328.
Albrecht, H.-E., Borys, M., Damaschke, N., and Tropea, C., 2003, Laser Doppler and Phase Doppler Measurement Techniques, Springer, Berlin.
Dring, R. P., 1982, “Sizing Criteria for Laser Anemometry Particles,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 104(1), pp. 15–17. [CrossRef]
Ruck, B., 1990, “Lasermethoden in der Strömungsmesstechnik”, AT-Fachverlag, Stuttgart, Germany.
Ober, B., 2013, “Experimental Investigation on the Aerodynamic Performance of a Compressor Cascade in Droplet Laden Flow,” Ph.D. thesis, Helmut-Schmidt University, Hamburg, Germany.
Chaker, M., and Meher-Homji, C., 2008, “Gas Turbine Power Augmentation: Parametric Study Relating to Fog Droplet Size and Its Influence on Evaporative Efficiency,” ASME Paper No. GT2008-51476. [CrossRef]
Chaker, M. A., and Meher-Homji, C. B., 2013, “Effect of Water Temperature on the Performance of Gas Turbine Inlet Air-Fogging Systems,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-95956. [CrossRef]
Saber, H. H., and El-Genk, M. S., 2004, “On the Breakup of a Thin Liquid Film Subject to Interfacial Shear,” J. Fluid Mech., 500(4), pp. 113–133. [CrossRef]
Ebner, J., Gerendas, M., Schafer, O., and Wittig, S., 2001, “Droplet Entrainment From Shear-Driven Liquid Wall Film in Inclined Ducts: Experimental Study and Correlation Comparison,” ASME Paper No. GT2001-0115. [CrossRef]
Gepperth, S., Müller, A., Koch, R., and Bauer, H., 2012, “Ligament and Droplet Characteristics in Prefilming Airblast Atomization,” International Conference on Liquid Atomization and Spray Systems (ICLASS), Heidelberg, Germany, Sept. 2–6.
White, A. J., and Meacock, A. J., 2010, “Wet Compression Analysis Including Velocity Slip Effects,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-23793. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Sketch of the test rig

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Definition of cascade flow properties

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Droplet spectrum of the incoming flow measured at nozzle exit and in the inlet of the cascade

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Shadowgraphy images showing qualitative droplet behavior at β1 = 149 deg (top) and β1 = 154 deg (bottom); ξw = 1.3% and Ma1 = 0.89

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Contourplot of D10 (top) and D32 (bottom) around the profile at Ma1 = 0.89, ξw = 1.3%, and β1 = 154 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Weber numbers for droplet diameters of 40–60 μm (top) and >60 μm (bottom) at Ma1 = 0.89, ξw = 1.3%, and β1 = 154 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Droplet breakup regimes occurring in the acceleration zone at Ma1 = 0.89, ξw = 1.3%, and β1 = 156 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Wall film pattern at ξw = 1.3%, Ma1 = 0.89 (left), Ma1 = 0.89 (right), β1 = 149 deg (top), and β1 = 153 deg (bottom)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Shock–rivulet interaction at ξw = 1.3%, Ma1 = 0.97, and β1 = 154 deg

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Pitchwise distribution of the normalized D32 at ξw = 1.3%, Ma1 = 0.89 at 0.5c behind the trailing edge

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Pitchwise distribution of the normalized D10 at ξw = 1.3%, Ma1 = 0.89 at 0.5c behind the trailing edge

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Normalized D32 and D10 at water loads of ξw = 1.3% and ξw = 2.2% at Ma1 = 0.89 at 0.5c behind the trailing edge

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Normalized D32 and D10 at Ma1 = 0.89 and Ma1 = 0.80 with ξw = 2.1% at 0.5c behind the trailing edge




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In