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Research Papers

Experimental Analysis of the Global Performance and the Flow Through a High-Bypass Turbofan in Windmilling Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Nicolás García Rosa

Aerodynamics Energetics
and Propulsion Department,
Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique
et de l'Espace (ISAE),
Université de Toulouse,
10 Avenue, Edouard Belin BP 54032,
Toulouse Cedex 4 31055, France
e-mail: Nicolas.Garcia–Rosa@isae.fr

Guillaume Dufour

Aerodynamics Energetics
and Propulsion Department,
Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique
et de l'Espace (ISAE),
Université de Toulouse,
10 Avenue, Edouard Belin BP 54032,
Toulouse Cedex 4 31055, France
e-mail: Guillaume.Dufour@isae.fr

Roger Barènes

Aerodynamics Energetics
and Propulsion Department,
Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique
et de l'Espace (ISAE),
Université de Toulouse,
10 Avenue, Edouard Belin BP 54032,
Toulouse Cedex 4 31055, France
e-mail: Roger.Barenes@isae.fr

Gérard Lavergne

Aerodynamics Energetics
and Propulsion Department,
Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique
et de l'Espace (ISAE),
Université de Toulouse,
10 Avenue, Edouard Belin BP 54032,
Toulouse Cedex 4 31055, France
e-mail: Gerard.Lavergne@isae.fr

Contributed by the Heat Transfer Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received February 20, 2014; final manuscript received September 1, 2014; published online November 18, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Michael Hathaway.

J. Turbomach 137(5), 051001 (May 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: TURBO-14-1024; doi: 10.1115/1.4028647 History: Received February 20, 2014; Revised September 01, 2014; Online November 18, 2014

A detailed study of the air flow through the fan stage of a high-bypass, geared turbofan in windmilling conditions is proposed, to address the key performance issues of this severe case of off-design operation. Experiments are conducted in the turbofan test rig of ISAE, specifically suited to reproduce windmilling operation in an ambient ground setup. The engine is equipped with conventional measurements and radial profiles of flow quantities are measured using directional five-hole probes to characterize the flow across the fan stage and derive windmilling performance parameters. These results bring experimental evidence of the findings of the literature that both the fan rotor and stator operate under severe off-design angle-of-attack, leading to flow separation and stagnation pressure loss. The fan rotor operates in a mixed fashion: spanwise, the inner sections of the rotor blades add work to the flow while the outer sections extract work and generate a pressure loss. The overall work is negative, revealing the resistive loads on the fan, caused by the bearing friction and work exchange in the different components of the fan shaft. The parametric study shows that the fan rotational speed is proportional to the mass flow rate, but the fan rotor inlet and outlet relative flow angles, as well as the fan load profile, remain constant, for different values of mass flow rate. Estimations of engine bypass ratio have been done, yielding values higher than six times the design value. The comprehensive database that was built will allow the validation of 3D Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulations to provide a better understanding of the internal losses in windmilling conditions.

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References

Walsh, P. P., and Fletcher, P., 2004, Gas Turbine Performance, Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK.
Anderson, B. A., Messih, D., and Plybon, R., 1997, “Engine Out Performance Characterisitics,” 13th International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines (ISABE), 13th, Chattanooga, TN, Sept. 7–12, Paper No. 97-7216.
Braig, W., Schulte, H., and Riegler, C., 1999, “Comparative Analysis of the Windmilling Performance of Turbojet and Turbofan Engines,” J. Propul. Power, 15(2), pp. 326–333. [CrossRef]
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Pilet, J., Lecordix, J.-L., Garcia Rosa, N., Barènes, R., and Lavergne, G., 2011, “Towards a Fully Coupled Component Zomming Approach in Engine Performance Simulation,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-46320. [CrossRef]
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Wallner, E. E., and Welna, H. J., 1951, “Generalization of Turbojet and Turbine-Propeller Engine Performance in Windmilling Condition,” National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Washington, DC, Technical Report No. NACA-RM-E51J23.
Mishra, R. K., Gouda, G., and Vedaprakash, B. S., 2008, “Relight Envelope of a Military Gas Turbine Engine: An Experimental Study,” ASME Paper No. 2008-43116. [CrossRef]
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Celestina, M. L., Suder, K. L., and Kulkarni, S., 2010, “Results of an Advanced Fan Stage Over a Wide Operating Range of Speed and Bypass Ratio: Part II—Comparison of CFD and Experimental Results,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-44021. [CrossRef]
Prasad, D., and Lord, W. K., 2010, “Internal Losses and Flow Behavior of a Turbofan Stage at Windmill,” ASME J. Turbomach., 132(3), p. 031007. [CrossRef]
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Architecture of the engine under study at the ISAE test bed. (Photo courtesy of Price Induction.)

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Fig. 2

Engine station nomenclature as per [13], conventional instrumentation and traverse positions

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Fig. 3

Photos of the experimental setup: (a) test bed and windmilling fan and (b) close-up on the engine

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Fig. 4

Five-hole probe measurements

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Fig. 5

Radial profiles at engine inlet (station 2A): (a) total (▲/▼) and static (△/▽) pressure profiles and (b) traverse positions

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Fig. 6

Nondimensional rotational speed

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Fig. 7

Inlet discharge coefficient

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Fig. 8

Radial stagnation pressure profiles through the fan stage: (a) pressure profiles and (b) traverse positions

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Fig. 9

Fan rotor work coefficient profiles: (a) profiles at Φ2 = 0.18 versus nominal and (b) profiles at B-03 for all values of Φ2

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Fig. 10

Fan work coefficient (▲ B-01, ▼ B-02, and • B-03)

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Fig. 11

Absolute azimuthal angles at stator inlet (2R) and outlet (2A): (a) stator inlet, (b) stator row, and (c) stator outlet

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Fig. 12

Relative azimuthal angles at rotor inlet (2A) and outlet (2R): (a) rotor inlet, (b) rotor row, and (c) rotor outlet

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Fig. 13

Radial profiles at stator exit (station 21A) and upstream of the core/bypass flow splitter (station 22A). Empty symbols show static pressure and filled symbols show stagnation pressure: (a) traverse positions, (b) total (filled symbols), and static (empty symbols) pressure profiles, (c) Mach number profile, and (d) meridional flow angle profile.

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Fig. 14

Streamlines near the flow splitter

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Fig. 15

Windmilling bypass ratio

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