Research Papers

Secondary Flows, Endwall Effects, and Stall Detection in Axial Compressor Design

[+] Author and Article Information
Milan Banjac

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Belgrade,
Belgrade 11120, Serbia
e-mail: mbbanjac@mas.bg.ac.rs

Milan V. Petrovic

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Belgrade,
Belgrade 11120, Serbia
e-mail: mpetrovic@mas.bg.ac.rs

Alexander Wiedermann

MAN Diesel and Turbo SE,
Oberhausen 46145, Germany
e-mail: alexander.wiedermann@man.eu

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received July 25, 2014; final manuscript received September 10, 2014; published online November 18, 2014. Editor: Ronald Bunker.

J. Turbomach 137(5), 051004 (May 01, 2015) (12 pages) Paper No: TURBO-14-1179; doi: 10.1115/1.4028648 History: Received July 25, 2014; Revised September 10, 2014; Online November 18, 2014

This paper describes a methodology and a fully tested and calibrated mathematical model for the treatment of endwall effects in axial compressor aerodynamic calculations. Additional losses and deviations caused by the clearance and secondary flows are analyzed. These effects are coupled with endwall boundary layer losses (EWBL) and blockage development. Stall/surge detection is included, and mutual interaction of different loss mechanisms is considered. Individual mathematical correlations for different effects have been created or adopted from earlier papers with the aim of forming one integral model that is completely described in this paper. Separate mathematical correlations and calibration measures are discussed in detail in the first part of the paper. The developed overall model is suitable for application in two-dimensional (2D) or mean-line compressor flow calculations. During the development, it was tested, calibrated, and validated using throughflow calculations comparing numerical results with experimental data for a large number of test cases. These test cases include compressors with very different configurations and operating ranges. The data on the compressors were taken from the open literature or obtained from industrial partners.

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Fig. 1

2D cascade geometry

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Fig. 2

Schematic representation of shroud leakage loss

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Fig. 3

Schematic representation of tip clearance leakage loss-forming mechanism

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Fig. 4

Simplified blade velocity distribution used in the tip clearance loss model

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Fig. 5

Spanwise distribution of additional losses; (a) shrouded stator and (b) unshrouded rotor

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Fig. 6

Overall performance of UH 2-stage fan

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Fig. 7

Overall performance of NASA 2-stage fan

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Fig. 8

Overall performance of UH 3-stage compressor

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Fig. 9

Static and total pressure and temperature behind the rows of UH 3-stage compressor—the design operating point

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Fig. 10

Overall performance of Sulzer 4-stage compressor

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Fig. 11

Overall performance of NACA 5-stage compressor

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Fig. 12

Overall performance of NACA 8-stage compressor

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Fig. 13

Overall performance of EEE 10-stage compressor

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Fig. 14

Overall performance of MAN 11-stage compressor

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Fig. 15

Normalized total temperatures and total pressures behind the stages of MAN 11-stage compressor—the design operating point

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Fig. 16

Blockage development for EEE 10-stage compressor in a nominal regime (total pressure ratio = 23)




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