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Research Papers

Proposal and Experimental Verification of Design Guidelines for Centrifugal Compressor Impellers With Curvilinear Element Blades to Improve Compressor Performance

[+] Author and Article Information
Kiyotaka Hiradate

Hitachi Research Laboratory,
Advanced Simulation Research Department,
Mechanical Engineering Research Center,
Hitachi, Ltd.,
832-2 Horiguchi,
Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-0034, Japan
e-mail: Kiyotaka.hiradate.kf@hitachi.com

Hiromi Kobayashi

Fluid Dynamics R&D Department,
Turbomachinery R&D Center,
Infrastructure System Company,
Hitachi, Ltd.,
603 Kandatsu,
Tsuchiura, Ibaraki 300-0013, Japan
e-mail: hiromi.kobayashi.zm@hitachi.com

Kazuyuki Sugimura

Hitachi Research Laboratory,
Reliability Science Research Department,
Mechanical Engineering Research Center,
Hitachi, Ltd.,
832-2 Horiguchi,
Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-0034, Japan
e-mail: kazuyuki.sugimura.hk@hitachi.com

Toshio Ito

Compressor Division,
Compressor Design Department,
Tsuchiura Works,
Infrastructure System Company,
Hitachi, Ltd.,
603 Kandatsu,
Tsuchiura, Ibaraki 300-0013, Japan
e-mail: toshio.ito.wa@hitachi.com

Hideo Nishida

Compressor Division,
Compressor Design Department,
Tsuchiura Works,
Infrastructure System Company,
Hitachi, Ltd.,
603 Kandatsu,
Tsuchiura, Ibaraki 300-0013, Japan
e-mail: Hideo.nishida.cr@hitachi.com

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received August 26, 2014; final manuscript received September 8, 2014; published online November 18, 2014. Editor: Ronald Bunker.

J. Turbomach 137(5), 051008 (May 01, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: TURBO-14-1218; doi: 10.1115/1.4028650 History: Received August 26, 2014; Revised September 08, 2014; Online November 18, 2014

This study numerically and experimentally examines the effects of applying curvilinear element blades to fully shrouded centrifugal impellers on the performance of the centrifugal compressor stages. The curvilinear element blades we developed for centrifugal turbomachinery were defined by the coordinate transformations between a revolutionary flow-coordinate system and a cylindrical coordinate system. All the blade sections in the transferred cylindrical coordinate system were moved and stacked spanwise in accordance with the given “lean profile,” which meant the spanwise distribution profile of movement of the blade sections, to form a new leaned blade surface. The effects of the curvilinear element blades on the impeller flowfield were investigated using numerical simulations, and the optimum design guidelines for impellers with curvilinear element blades were considered. Then, a new impeller using these design guidelines was designed and the performance improvement of a new compressor stage was evaluated by numerical simulations. As mentioned in several papers, we numerically confirmed that curvilinear element blades with a negative tangential lean (TGL) profile improved the velocity distribution and stage efficiency because they help to suppress the secondary flows in the impeller. The negative TGL mentioned in this paper represents the lean profile in which the blade hub end leans forward in the direction of the impeller rotation compared to the blade shroud end. At the same time, we also found that the stall margin of these impellers deteriorated due to the increase in relative velocity deceleration near the suction surface of the shroud in the forward part of the impeller. Therefore, we propose new design guidelines for impellers with the curvilinear element blades by applying a negative TGL to line element blades in which the blade loading of the shroud side in the forward part of the impeller is reduced. We confirmed from the numerical simulation results that the performance of the new compressor stage improved compared to that in the corresponding conventional one. The new design guidelines for the curvilinear element blades were experimentally verified by comparing the performance of the new compressor stage with the corresponding conventional one. The measured efficiency of the new compressor stage was 2.4% higher than that of the conventional stage with the stall margin kept comparable. A comparison of the measured velocity distributions at the impeller exit showed that the velocity distribution of the new impeller was much more uniform than that of the conventional one.

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Fig. 3

Lean profile definition

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Fig. 2

Geometric modeling method [8]

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Fig. 1

Comparison of impeller meridional contours

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Fig. 4

Example of computational mesh

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Fig. 5

Predicted stage performance curves

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Fig. 6

Radial velocity distribution at impeller outlet (at design point)

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Fig. 7

Static pressure distribution (at design point)

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Fig. 8

Secondary relative velocity vector distribution (at design point)

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Fig. 10

Calculated streamline of impeller (γ = 120 deg)

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Fig. 11

Predicted von Mises stress contours and impeller deformations

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Fig. 9

Relative velocity distribution near shroud (at design point)

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Fig. 12

Distribution of blade angle difference at shroud

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Fig. 13

Relative velocity distributions at shroud (at design point)

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Fig. 14

TGL profile and appearance of blades

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Fig. 15

Predicted stage performance curves

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Fig. 16

Predicted adiabatic efficiency from stage inlet to VL inlet, VL outlet, and stage outlet

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Fig. 17

Radial velocity distributions at impeller outlet (at design point)

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Fig. 18

Relative velocity distributions near shroud (at design point)

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Fig. 19

Experimental apparatus

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Fig. 20

Model compressor cross section

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Fig. 22

Measured adiabatic efficiency from stage inlet to VL inlet and VL outlet

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Fig. 23

Radial velocity distributions at impeller exit (at design point)

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Fig. 24

Measured static pressure recovery coefficient in VL

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Fig. 21

Measured performance curves

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