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Research Papers

Development of a Fluidic Actuator for Adaptive Flow Control on a Thick Wind Turbine Airfoil

[+] Author and Article Information
Sebastian Niether

Chair of Fluid Dynamics
Hermann-Föttinger-Institut,
Technische Universität Berlin,
Müller-Breslau-Str. 8,
Berlin D-10623, Germany
e-mail: sebastian.niether@tu-berlin.de

Bernhard Bobusch, David Marten, Georgios Pechlivanoglou, Christian Navid Nayeri, Christian Oliver Paschereit

Chair of Fluid Dynamics
Hermann-Föttinger-Institut,
Technische Universität Berlin,
Müller-Breslau-Str. 8,
Berlin D-10623, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received September 8, 2014; final manuscript received September 15, 2014; published online November 25, 2014. Editor: Ronald Bunker.

J. Turbomach 137(6), 061003 (Jun 01, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: TURBO-14-1229; doi: 10.1115/1.4028654 History: Received September 08, 2014; Revised September 15, 2014; Online November 25, 2014

Wind turbines are exposed to unsteady incident flow conditions such as gusts or tower interference. These cause a change in the blades' local angle of attack, which often leads to flow separation at the inner rotor sections. Recirculation areas and dynamic stall may occur, which lead to an uneven load distribution along the blade. In this work, a fluidic actuator is developed that reduces flow separation. The functional principle is adapted from a fluidic amplifier. High pressure air fed by an external supply flows into the interaction region of the actuator. Two control ports, oriented perpendicular to the inlet, allow for a steering of the actuation flow. One of the control ports is connected to the suction side, the other to the pressure side of the airfoil. Depending on the pressure difference that varies with the angle of attack, the actuation air is directed into one of four outlet channels. These guide the air to different chordwise exit locations on the airfoil's suction side. The appropriate actuation location adjusts automatically according to the pressure difference between the control ports and therefore incidence. Suction side flow separation is delayed as the boundary layer is enriched with kinetic energy. Experiments were conducted on a DU97-W-300 airfoil at Re = 2.2 × 105. Compared to the baseline, lift variations due to varying angles of attack were reduced by an order of magnitude. A Fast/Aerodyn simulation of a full wind turbine rotor was performed to show the real world load reduction potential. Additionally, system integration is discussed, which includes suggestions on producibility and operational details.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Distribution of Cp on a DU97-W-300 Air foil at three different angles of attack (data: QBlade v0.6 [25])

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Fig. 2

Principle of the actuator with numbered outlets

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Fig. 3

Setup of the open wind tunnel

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Fig. 4

Geometric parameters of the laminated airfoil

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Fig. 5

Reynolds dependency of lift coefficient over angle of attack on the DU97-W-300 (data: QBlade v0.6)

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Fig. 6

Experiment I: lift coefficient over angle of attack, actuation at four rows, baseline polar (O), and targeted polar (thick)

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Fig. 7

Generated mesh, ICEM CFD 14.0

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Fig. 8

Mean flow field and velocity vectors as numerically calculated, Ansys CFD-POST

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Fig. 9

Assembled airfoil with omitted and transparent parts

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Fig. 10

Lift coefficient on the baseline airfoil (O) and with adaptive flow control enabled at various actuation mass flows

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Fig. 11

Lift and drag of the DU97-W-300 airfoil without (O) and with (+) adaptive flow control

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Fig. 12

NREL 5 MW reference blade and investigated blade station (blue)

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Fig. 13

Normal (out of rotor plane) force variation and angle of attack over time

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Fig. 14

Histogram of load variations

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Fig. 15

Schematic representation of the actuator integration into the blade structure

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Fig. 16

Power curve (left) and power time series (right). The efficient use of excess power for the air tank topping is clearly depicted in the plots.

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Fig. 17

Basic control algorithm of the air compressor and storage system

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