0
Research Papers

A Novel Gas Generator Concept for Jet Engines Using a Rotating Combustion Chamber

[+] Author and Article Information
Peter Jeschke

Institute of Jet Propulsion and Turbomachinery, RWTH Aachen University,
Templergraben 55,
Aachen 52062, Germany
e-mail: jeschke@ist.rwth-aachen.de

Andreas Penkner

Institute of Jet Propulsion and Turbomachinery,
RWTH Aachen University,
Templergraben 55,
Aachen 52062, Germany
e-mail: penkner@ist.rwth-aachen.de

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received November 6, 2014; final manuscript received November 10, 2014; published online January 7, 2015. Editor: Ronald S. Bunker.

J. Turbomach 137(7), 071010 (Jul 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: TURBO-14-1288; doi: 10.1115/1.4029201 History: Received November 06, 2014; Revised November 10, 2014; Online January 07, 2015

A gas generator—consisting of a single-stage shrouded mixed-flow compressor without a diffusor, a rotating combustion chamber, and a vaneless single-stage shrouded centripetal turbine—is presented and analyzed here. All components comprise a coherent rotating device, which avoids most of the problems usually associated with small gas generators. In other words, the concept avoids all radial clearances; it is vaneless, shortens the combustion chamber, minimizes the wetted area, and enables ceramic materials to be used, due to compressive blade stresses. However, the concept faces severe structural, thermal, and chemical reaction challenges and is associated with a large Rayleigh-type total pressure loss. All these features and their implications are discussed and their benefits and drawbacks for several jet engines are quantified, mainly by means of thermodynamic cycle calculations. As a result, it has been demonstrated that the concept offers a thrust-to-weight ratio which is higher than the standard when incorporated into small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV)-type jet engines. It also enables an attractive multistage and dual-flow, but fully vaneless design option. However, the concept leads to a decrease in thermal efficiency if these were to be accomplished in the (small) core of turbofans with highest overall pressure ratios (OPRs) and high bypass ratios. In summary, the paper presents a gas generator approach, which may be considered by designers of small jet engines with high power density requirements, like those used in UAV applications. But this has been proven not to be an option for high-efficiency propulsion.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

TEAL Group, Corporation, 2008, “Market Profile and Forecast,” World Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems, TEAL Group, Fairfax, VA.
Denis, L. D. H., and Serruys, M. Y. A., 1959, “Gas Turbine Plant Acting as Generator of Gas Under Pressure,” Patent No. GB 818,063.
Campbell, G. K. C., 1971, “Gas Turbine Engine With Rotating Combustion Chamber,” U.S. Patent No. 3,557,551.
Lawlor, S. P., Steele, R. C., and Kendrick, D., 2004, “Rotary Ramjet Engine With Flameholder Extending to Running Clearance at Engine Casing Interior Wall,” U.S. Patent No. 6,694,743 B2.
Lior, D., 2008, “Orbiting Combustion Nozzle Engine,” U.S. Patent No. 7,404,286 B2.
Chamis, C. C., and Blankson, I. M., 2003, “Exo-Skeletal Engine—Novel Engine Concept,” ASME Paper No. GT2003-38204. [CrossRef]
Halliwell, I., 2001, “Exoskeletal Engine Concept: Feasibility Studies for Medium and Small Thrust Engines,” NASA Modern Technologies Corporation, Technical Report No. NASA/CR-2001-211322.
Lewis, G. D., 1973, “Centrifugal-Force Effects on Combustion,” Symp. (Int.) Combust., 14(1), pp. 413–419. [CrossRef]
Klemm, H., 2010, “Silicon Nitride for High-Temperature Applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 93(6), pp. 1501–1522. [CrossRef]
Lapsa, A. P., and Dahm, W. J., 2009, “Hyperacceleration Effects on Turbulent Combustion in Premixed Step-Stabilized Flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst., 32(2), pp. 1731–1738. [CrossRef]
Zelina, J., Shouse, D. T., and Hancock, R. D., 2004, “Ultra-Compact Combustors for Advanced Gas Turbine Engines,” ASME Paper No. GT2004-53155. [CrossRef]
Zelina, J., Greenwood, R. T., and Shouse, D. T., 2006, “Operability and Efficiency Performance of Ultra-Compact, High Gravity (g) Combustor Concepts,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-90119. [CrossRef]
Zelina, J., Shouse, D. T., Stutrud, J. S., Sturgess, G. J., and Roquemore, W. M., 2006, “Exploration of Compact Combustors for Reheat Cycle Aero Engine Applications,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-90179. [CrossRef]
Zelina, J., Anderson, W., Koch, P., and Shouse, D. T., 2008, “Compact Combustion Systems Using a Combination of Trapped Vortex and High-G Combustor Technologies,” ASME Paper No. GT2008-50090. [CrossRef]
Picard, M., Rancourt, D., and Plante, J.-S., 2011, “Rim-Rotor Rotary Ramjet Engine (R4E): Design and Experimental Validation of a Proof-of-Concept Prototype,” ISABE Conference, Gothenburg, Sweden, Sept. 12–16, Paper No. ISABE2011-1258.
Spytek, C. J., 2012, “Application of an Inter-Turbine Burner Using Core Driven Vitiated Air in a Gas Turbine Engine,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-69333. [CrossRef]
Menter, F. R., 1994, “Two-Equation Eddy-Viscosity Turbulence Models for Engineering Applications,” AIAA J., 32(8), pp. 1598–1605. [CrossRef]
Ziegler, K. U., 2003, “Experimentelle Untersuchung der Laufrad-Diffusor-Interaktion in Einem Radialverdichter Variabler Geometrie,” dissertation, RWTH Aachen, D 82 Shaker Verlag, Aachen, Germany.
Smirnov, P. E., Hansen, T., and Menter, F. R., 2007, “Numerical Simulation of Turbulent Flows in Centrifugal Compressor Stages With Different Radial Gaps,” ASME Paper No. GT2007-27376. [CrossRef]
Kurzke, J., 2012, “GasTurb—The Gas Turbine Performance Simulation Program,” GasTurb GmbH, Aachen, Germany, www.gasturb.de
Penkner, A., and Jeschke, P., 2014, “Analytic Rayleigh Pressure Loss Model for High-Swirl Combustion in a Rotating Combustion Chamber,” 63rd Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrtkongress: Augsburg, Germany, Sept. 16–18, Paper No. DLRK–2014–340267.
UAS, 2009, The Global Perspective, 7th ed., Blyenberg & Co, Paris. [PubMed] [PubMed]
Fullagar, K. P. L., 1974, “The Design of Air Cooled Turbine Rotor Blades,” British Aeronautical Research Council, London, UK, Report 35684, Report No. HMT 361.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic sketch of the engine concept

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Meridional flow channel of the engine concept

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Gas generator integrated in a counter-rotating turbofan

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Relative Mach number and velocity vectors at 50% span for the low-speed design

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Combustor total pressure ratio (high-speed design) over turbine inlet temperature as a function of combustor inlet temperature for fixed Mcax3 = 0.15 and cu = 396 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

SFC and thermal efficiency over booster stages for case 2 turbofan at test cell conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Thermal efficiency of case I (conventional turbofan), case II (low-speed gas generator turbofan), and case III (high-speed gas generator turbofan), at test cell conditions

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In