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Research Papers

Off-Line Temperature Profiling Utilizing Phosphorescent Thermal History Paints and Coatings

[+] Author and Article Information
J. P. Feist

Sensor Coating Systems Ltd.,
Imperial Incubator,
Bessemer Building, Level 1&2,
Imperial College London,
London SW7 2AZ, UK
e-mail: j.feist@sensorcoatings.com

S. Karmakar Biswas

Sensor Coating Systems Ltd.,
Imperial Incubator,
Bessemer Building, Level 1&2,
Imperial College London,
London SW7 2AZ, UK
e-mail: s.kbiswas@sensorcoatings.com

C. C. Pilgrim

Sensor Coating Systems Ltd.,
Imperial Incubator,
Bessemer Building, Level 1&2,
Imperial College London,
London SW7 2AZ, UK
e-mail: c.pilgrim@sensorcoatings.com

P. Y. Sollazzo

Sensor Coating Systems Ltd.,
Imperial Incubator,
Bessemer Building, Level 1&2,
Imperial College London,
London SW7 2AZ, UK
e-mail: p.sollazzo@sensorcoatings.com

S. Berthier

Sensor Coating Systems Ltd.,
Imperial Incubator,
Bessemer Building, Level 1&2,
Imperial College London,
London SW7 2AZ, UK
e-mail: s.berthier@sensorcoatings.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received March 9, 2015; final manuscript received March 20, 2015; published online May 12, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Ronald Bunker.

J. Turbomach 137(10), 101003 (May 12, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: TURBO-15-1041; doi: 10.1115/1.4030259 History: Received March 09, 2015

Temperature profiling of components in gas turbines is of increasing importance as engineers drive to increase firing temperatures and optimize component’s cooling requirements in order to increase efficiency and lower CO2 emissions. However, on-line temperature measurements and, particularly, temperature profiling are difficult, sometimes impossible, to perform due to inaccessibility of the components. A desirable alternative would be to record the exposure temperature in such a way that it can be determined later, off-line. The commercially available thermal paints are toxic in nature and come with a range of technical disadvantages such as subjective readout and limited durability. This paper proposes a novel alternative measurement technique which the authors call thermal history paints and thermal history coatings. These can be particularly useful in the design process, but further could provide benefits in the maintenance area where hotspots which occurred during operation can be detected during maintenance intervals when the engine is at ambient temperature. This novel temperature profiling technique uses optical active ions in a ceramic host material. When these ions are excited by light they start to phosphoresce. The host material undergoes irreversible changes when exposed to elevated temperatures and since these changes are on the atomic level they influence the phosphorescent properties such as the life time decay of the phosphorescence. The changes in phosphorescence can be related to temperature through calibration such that in situ analysis will return the temperature experienced by the coating. A major benefit of this technique is in the automated interpretation of the coatings. An electronic instrument is used to measure the phosphorescence signal eliminating the need for a specialist interpreter, and thus increasing readout speed. This paper reviews results from temperature measurements made with a water-based paint for the temperature range 100–800 °C in controlled conditions. Repeatability of the tests and errors are discussed. Further, some measurements are carried out using an electronic hand-held interrogation device which can scan a component surface and provide a spatial resolution of below 3 mm. The instrument enables mobile measurements outside of laboratory conditions. Further, a robust thermal history coating is introduced demonstrating the capability of the coating to withstand long term exposures. The coating is based on thermal barrier coating (TBC) architecture with a high temperature bondcoat and deposited using an air plasma spray process to manufacture a reliable long lasting coating. Such a coating could be employed over the life of the component to provide critical temperature information at regular maintenance intervals for example indicating hot spots on engine parts.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

A typical single pulse decay curve measured with the hand held instrumentation (see Experimental Aspects-Mobile Hand-Held Instrumentation section). The constant region at the beginning of the curve signifies the time when the laser is operating. The dashed curve shows the best fit to the decay curve with Eq. (2).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

A typical laboratory bench top set up for lifetime decay measurements

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

(a) Photograph showing a measurement being taken with the laser pen of the hand held instrumentation. The small diameter of the fiber provides high spatial resolution temperature profiling across the sample surface. (b) Photograph showing a user measuring past temperatures on the inner liner of a combustion chamber of a Rolls-Royce jet engine.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Sketch of the butterfly sample. One side of the sample was painted with a commercial thermal paint while the other side was coated with APS YAG:Ln thermal history coating. T1–T8 represent the locations of the eight thermocouples welded to the sample on the thermal paint side. The distance measurements indicated in the figure are in mm.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Diagram representing the experimental arrangement for the Joule heating procedure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

(a) Photograph of the thermal history paint samples heat treated at different temperatures. (b) A normalized calibration curve for a typical Eu-based phosphor paint. The three different symbol types represent measurements done by separate operator at separate times and locations. The error bars were multiplied by a factor of 5 for clearer visibility.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Statistical distribution of the 30 single temperature measurements done on a typical EU-based thermal history paint exposed to 650 °C for 30 min. The solid curve represents a Gaussian fit to the distribution data.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

The change in lifetime decay for YAG:Ln samples at different heat treatment temperatures when exposed for 45 min. Three different heat treatment routines were conducted on three different samples (see legend).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Estimation of the temperature profile on the butterfly sample from the thermal paint. The black curves are guide to eyes, indicating the location of color change interface. The black spots on the sample show the locations of the welded thermocouples.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Temperatures measured on the butterfly sample by the thermocouples, the thermal paint, and the thermal history coating

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

The calibration curve for the APS YAG:Ln coating. The error bars were multiplied by a factor of 2 for improved visibility.

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