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Research Papers

Analysis and Prediction of Shock-Induced Vortex Circulation in Transonic Compressors

[+] Author and Article Information
Kenneth P. Clark

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Brigham Young University,
Provo, UT 84602
e-mail: kenpclark@gmail.com

Steven E. Gorrell

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Brigham Young University,
Provo, UT 84602
e-mail: sgorrell@byu.edu

1Current affiliation: Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received November 7, 2014; final manuscript received August 18, 2015; published online October 6, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Ronald Bunker.

J. Turbomach 137(12), 121007 (Oct 06, 2015) (10 pages) Paper No: TURBO-14-1290; doi: 10.1115/1.4031424 History: Received November 07, 2014; Revised August 18, 2015

Multiple high-fidelity time-accurate computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the effects of upstream stator loading and rotor shock strength on vortex shedding characteristics in a single-stage transonic compressor. Three loadings on the upstream stator row of decreased, nominal, and increased loading in conjunction with three axial spacings of close, mid, and far were studied for this analysis. The time-accurate urans code turbo was used to generate periodic, quarter annulus simulations of the blade row interaction (BRI) compressor rig. It was observed that vortex shedding was synchronized to the passing of a rotor bow shock. Results show that vortex strength increases linearly with stator loading and rotor bow shock strength. “Normal” and “large” shock-induced vortices formed on the stator trailing edge (TE) immediately after the shock passing, but the large vortices were strengthened at the TE due to a low-velocity region on the suction surface. This low-velocity region was generated upstream on the suction surface from a shock-induced thickening of the boundary layer or separation bubble. The circulation of the large vortices was greater than the normal vortices by a factor of 1.7, 1.83, and 2.04 for decreased, nominal, and increased deswirler loadings. At decreased loading, only 24% of the measured vortices were considered large, while at nominal loading 58% were large. A model was developed to predict shock-induced vortex circulation from a known rotor bow shock strength, stator diffusion factor, and near-wake parameters. The model predicts the average vortex circulation very well, with 5% difference between predicted and measured values. An understanding of the unsteady interactions associated with blade loading and rotor shock strength in transonic stages will help compressor designers account for unsteady flow physics at design and off-design operating conditions.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

BRI rig cross section in its general configuration

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Fig. 2

Grid showing two blade passages of each row at midspan (every sixth node shown)

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Fig. 4

Time-averaged pressure coefficient on deswirler versus chord fraction at midspan

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Fig. 3

Experimental and time-averaged efficiencies for current simulation of midspacing at DL, NL, and IL. (Note: CFD efficiencies scaled by 0.95.)

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Fig. 6

Axial velocity contours with radial vorticity lines showing normal vortex formation on deswirler TE at midspan for midspacing at nominal loading: (a) t/T = 0.00, (b) t/T = 0.1875, (c) t/T = 0.3125, (d) t/T = 0.4375, and (e) t/T = 0.625

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Fig. 5

Axial velocity contours with radial vorticity lines showing normal vortex formation on deswirler TE at midspan for midspacing at deceased loading: (a) t/T = 0.00, (b) t/T = 0.125, (c) t/T = 0.25, (d) t/T = 0.375, and (e) t/T = 0.6875

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Fig. 7

Axial velocity contours with radial vorticity lines showing large vortex formation on deswirler TE at midspan for midspacing at deceased loading: (a) t/T = 0.1875, (b) t/T = 0.3125, (c) t/T = 0.4375, (d) t/T = 0.625, and (e) t/T = 0.9375

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Fig. 8

Axial velocity contours with radial vorticity lines showing large vortex formation on deswirler TE at midspan for midspacing at nominal loading: (a) t/T = 0.1875, (b) t/T = 0.3125, (c) t/T = 0.4375, (d) t/T = 0.625, and (e) t/T = 0.9375

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Fig. 9

Linear relationship between circulation and DF

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Fig. 10

Model to predict circulation of shock-induced vortices

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