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Research Papers

Design and Experimental Validation of a Supersonic Concentric Micro Gas Turbine

[+] Author and Article Information
Gabriel Vézina

CAMUS Laboratory,
Université de Sherbrooke,
2500 Boulevard University,
Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada
e-mail: Gabriel.Vezina@USherbrooke.ca

Hugo Fortier-Topping

CAMUS Laboratory,
Université de Sherbrooke,
2500 Boulevard University,
Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada
e-mail: Hugo.Fortier-Topping@USherbrooke.ca

François Bolduc-Teasdale

CAMUS Laboratory,
Université de Sherbrooke,
2500 Boulevard University,
Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada
e-mail: Francois.Bolduc-Teasdale@USherbrooke.ca

David Rancourt

Aerospace Systems Design Laboratory,
Georgia Institute of Technology,
275 Ferst Dr.,
Atlanta, GA 30332
e-mail: david.rancourt@gatech.edu

Mathieu Picard

CAMUS Laboratory,
Université de Sherbrooke,
2500 Boulevard University,
Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada
e-mail: Mathieu.Picard@usherbrooke.ca

Jean-Sébastien Plante

CAMUS Laboratory,
Université de Sherbrooke,
2500 Boulevard University,
Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada
e-mail: Jean-Sebastien.Plante@USherbrooke.ca

Martin Brouillette

LOCUS Laboratory,
Université de Sherbrooke,
2500 Boulevard University,
Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada
e-mail: Martin.Brouillette@USherbrooke.ca

Luc Fréchette

MICROS Laboratory,
Université de Sherbrooke,
2500 Boulevard University,
Sherbrooke, QC J1K 2R1, Canada
e-mail: Luc.Frechette@USherbrooke.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received December 19, 2014; final manuscript received October 6, 2015; published online November 17, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Seung Jin Song.

J. Turbomach 138(2), 021007 (Nov 17, 2015) (11 pages) Paper No: TURBO-14-1322; doi: 10.1115/1.4031863 History: Received December 19, 2014; Revised October 06, 2015

This paper presents the design and experimental results of a new micro gas turbine architecture exploiting counterflow within a single supersonic rotor. This new architecture, called the supersonic rim-rotor gas turbine (SRGT), uses a single rotating assembly incorporating a central hub, a supersonic turbine rotor, a supersonic compressor rotor, and a rim-rotor. This SRGT architecture can potentially increase engine power density while significantly reducing manufacturing costs. The paper presents the preliminary design of a 5 kW SRGT prototype having an external diameter of 72.5 mm and rotational speed of 125,000 rpm. The proposed aerodynamic design comprises a single stage supersonic axial compressor, with a normal shock in the stator, and a supersonic impulse turbine. A pressure ratio of 2.75 with a mass flow rate of 130 g/s is predicted using a 1D aerodynamic model in steady state. The proposed combustion chamber uses an annular reverse-flow configuration, using hydrogen as fuel. The analytical design of the combustion chamber is based on a 0D model with three zones (primary, secondary, and dilution), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are used to validate the analytical model. The proposed structural design incorporates a unidirectional carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer rim-rotor, and titanium alloy is used for the other rotating components. An analytical structural model and numerical validation predict structural integrity of the engine at steady-state operation up to 1000 K for the turbine blades. Experimentation has resulted in the overall engine performance evaluation. Experimentation also demonstrated a stable hydrogen flame in the combustion chamber and structural integrity of the engine for at least 30 s of steady-state operation at 1000 K.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 3

Section view of SRGT with main dimensions

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Fig. 4

SRGT gas turbine design procedure

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Fig. 5

Control volume of the 1D continuous flows model [11]

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Fig. 6

Model of the compressor stage

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Fig. 7

Zero-dimensional combustion chamber model

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Fig. 8

Model of the turbine stage

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Fig. 9

Compressor and turbine geometries

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Fig. 10

Computational domain with the boundary conditions

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Fig. 11

Combustor CFD results of the optimized model: (a) streamline plot and (b) temperature contour plot

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Fig. 12

Combustion chamber geometry

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Fig. 13

SRGT interference fit assembly

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Fig. 14

Radial stresses at 125,000 rpm

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Fig. 15

Tangential stresses at 125,000 rpm

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Fig. 16

Experimental setup detailed cross section

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Fig. 17

Acceleration of the prototype after ignition

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Fig. 18

Temperatures and equivalence ratio during combustion

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