A new approach for steady-state heat transfer measurements is proposed. Temperature distributions are measured at the surface and a defined depth inside the wall to provide boundary conditions for a three-dimensional heat flux calculation. The practical application of the technique is demonstrated by employing a superposition method to measure heat transfer and film cooling effectiveness downstream of two different 0.75D deep narrow trench geometries and cylindrical holes. Compared to the cylindrical holes, both trench geometries lead to an augmentation of the heat transfer coefficient supposedly caused by the highly turbulent attached cooling film emanating from the trenches. Areas of high heat transfer are visible, where recirculation bubbles or large amounts of coolant are expected. Increasing the density ratio from 1.33 to 1.60 led to a slight reduction of the heat transfer coefficient and an increased cooling effectiveness. Both trenches provide a net heat flux reduction (NHFR) superior to that of cylindrical holes, especially at the highest momentum flux ratios.