Research Papers

Considerations for Measuring Compressor Aerodynamic Excitations Including Rotor Wakes and Tip Leakage Flows

[+] Author and Article Information
Natalie R. Smith

Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Purdue University,
500 Allison Road,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: smith773@purdue.edu

William L. Murray, III

Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Purdue University,
500 Allison Road,
West Lafayette, IN 47907

Nicole L. Key

Associate Professor
Mechanical Engineeering,
Purdue University,
500 Allison Road,
West Lafayette, IN 47907
e-mail: nkey@purdue.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received October 9, 2015; final manuscript received November 2, 2015; published online December 22, 2015. Editor: Kenneth C. Hall.

J. Turbomach 138(3), 031008 (Dec 22, 2015) (9 pages) Paper No: TURBO-15-1223; doi: 10.1115/1.4032006 History: Received October 09, 2015; Revised November 02, 2015

The unsteady flow field generated by the rotor provides unsteady aerodynamic excitations to the downstream stator, which can result in vibrations such as forced response. In this paper, measurements of the rotor wake and rotor tip leakage flow from an embedded rotor in a multistage axial compressor are presented. A unique feature of this work is the pitchwise traverse of the flow field used to highlight the changes in the rotor exit flow field with respect to the position of the surrounding vane rows. Results acquired at midspan focus on characterizing an average rotor wake, including the effects on the frequency spectrum, from a forced response perspective. While many analyses use an average rotor wake to characterize the aerodynamic forcing function to the downstream stator, this study explores the factors that influence changes in the rotor wake shape and the resulting impact on the spectrum. Additionally, this paper investigates the flow near the endwall where the tip leakage vortex is an important contributor to the aerodynamic excitations for the downstream vane. For the first time, experimental data are presented at the rotor exit, which show the modulation in size and radial penetration of the tip leakage vortex as the rotor passes through the upstream vane wake. As computational models become more advanced, the ability to incorporate these aerodynamic excitation effects should be considered to provide better predictions for vane vibratory response.

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Fig. 1

Compressor flowpath including station numbering scheme

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Fig. 2

Part-speed compressor map with loading conditions of interest identified

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Fig. 3

Schematic outlining the two averaging methods used

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Fig. 4

The nominal loading (a) PA-EA absolute flow angle at rotor 2 exit and (b) wake widths and depths and the corresponding high loading (c) flow angles and (d) wake data

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Fig. 5

The average wake compared with the maximum and minimum PA-EA wakes at nominal (a) and high (b) loading, the corresponding FTs neglecting rotor–rotor interactions (c) and (d), and the Fourier transfer of the PA-EA revolution (e) and (f)

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Fig. 6

Pitchwise results for midspan at high loading of (a) the EA revolution of flow angle, (b) the R1 and R2 spectral magnitudes of the ensemble-averaged revolution, (c) the mean wakes, and (d) the changes in wake width and depth

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Fig. 7

Rotor wake data at 80% span for both averaging methods and both loading conditions

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Fig. 8

CP RMS contours (left) and FT of RMS at 80% span (right) for 40% (top) and 90%vp (bottom) at the high loading condition

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Fig. 9

Average rotor exit flow field, in terms of CP RMS, at each circumferential location across the vane passage (clockwise) at high loading

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Fig. 10

Contours of CP RMS (bottom) at high loading for the average wake (left), 40%vp (middle), and 90%vp (right) and flow angle and RMS data at 80% span (top) showing stator wake effects on the tip leakage vortex

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Fig. 11

Schematic of interaction between stator 1 wake and rotor 2 tip leakage vortex: (a) R2 passing the middle of the S1 passage and (b) R2 passing through the S1 wake

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Fig. 12

Flow visualization on the casing endwall over rotor 2




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