This paper investigates the acoustically induced rotor blade vibration that occurred in a state-of-the-art 1.5-stage transonic research compressor. The compressor was designed with the unconventional goal to encounter self-excited blade vibration within its regular operating domain. Despite the design target to have the rotor blades reach negative aerodamping in the near stall region for high speeds and open inlet guide vane, no vibration occurred in that area prior to the onset of rotating stall. Self-excited vibrations were finally initiated when the compressor was operated at part speed with fully open inlet guide vane along nominal and low operating line. The mechanism of the fluid–structure interaction behind the self-excited vibration is identified by means of unsteady compressor instrumentation data. Experimental findings point toward an acoustic resonance originating from separated flow in the variable inlet guide vanes (VIGV). A detailed investigation based on highly resolved wall-pressure data confirms this conclusion. This paper documents the spread in aerodynamic damping calculated by various partners with their respective aeroelastic tools for a single geometry and speed line. This significant spread proves the need for calibration of aeroelastic tools to reliably predict blade vibration. This paper contains a concise categorization of flow-induced blade vibration and defines criteria to quickly distinguish the different types of blade vibration. It further gives a detailed description of a novel test compressor and thoroughly investigates the encountered rotor blade vibration.