0
Research Papers

Unsteady Measurements of Periodic Effects in a Transonic Compressor With Casing Treatments

[+] Author and Article Information
Christoph Brandstetter

Institute of Gas Turbines and
Aerospace Propulsion,
Technische Universität Darmstadt,
Otto-Berndt-Str. 2,
Darmstadt 64287, Germany
e-mail: brandstetter@glr.tu-darmstadt.de

Fabian Wartzek, Jan Werner, Heinz-Peter Schiffer

Institute of Gas Turbines and
Aerospace Propulsion,
Technische Universität Darmstadt,
Otto-Berndt-Str. 2,
Darmstadt 64287, Germany

Frank Heinichen

Rolls Royce Deutschland,
Eschenweg 11,
Dahlewitz 15827, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received October 12, 2015; final manuscript received November 10, 2015; published online January 27, 2016. Editor: Kenneth C. Hall.

J. Turbomach 138(5), 051007 (Jan 27, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: TURBO-15-1224; doi: 10.1115/1.4032185 History: Received October 12, 2015; Revised November 10, 2015

Application of nonaxisymmetric casing treatments (CTs) can extend the operating range of a transonic compressor significantly. Recent CT designs have proven successful at achieving operating range extension without efficiency loss under design conditions. Two different CT designs were investigated on a high-speed one and a half stage test rig using extensive instrumentation. The stage setup is representative of the front stage of a modern high-pressure compressor. Results of particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements taken in the blade tip region underneath the CT show a significantly modified flow structure compared to the smooth casing reference case. Blockage zone, secondary flow, and shock structures are affected by the CT, especially in highly throttled operating conditions. The stall inception process of the system with axial slots shows unexpected behavior, with modal activities that are not observed without CT. These activities are resolved using unsteady wall pressure (WP) and hot wire measurements.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Schlechtriem, S. , and Lötzerich, M. , 1997, “ Breakdown of Tip Leakage Vortices in Compressors at Flow Conditions Close to Stall,” ASME Paper No. GT-1997-41.
Seitz, P. , 1999, “ Casing Treatment for Axial Flow Compressors,” Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
Streit, J. A. , 2014, “ Zum Fortschritt Transsonischer Axialverdichter,” Ph.D. thesis, Technische Universität München, Lehrstuhl für Flugantriebe, München, Germany.
Yu, Q. , Li, Q. , and Li, L. , 2002, “ The Experimental Researches on Improving Operating Stability of a Single-Stage Transonic Fan,” ASME Paper No. GT-2002-30640.
Danner, F. , Kau, H.-P. , Müller, M. , Schiffer, H.-P. , and Brignole, G. , 2009, “ Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Axial Skewed Slot Casing Treatments for a Transonic Compressor Stage,” ASME Paper No. GT-2009-59647.
Legras, G. , Castillon, L. , Trebinjac, I. , and Gourdain, N. , 2011, “ Flow Mechanisms Induced by Non-Axisymmetric Casing Treatment in a Transonic Axial Compressor,” 10th International Symposium on Experimental Computational Aerothermodynamics of Internal Flows, Brussels, July 4–7, Paper No. ISAIF10-158.
Tuo, W. , Lu, Y. , Yuan, W. , Zhou, S. , and Li, Q. , 2010, “ Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Unsteady Excitation Frequency of Casing Treatment on Transonic Compressor Performance,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133(2), p. 021014. [CrossRef]
Kroeckel, T. , Jeschke, P. , and Hiller, S. , 2011, “ Application of a Multistage Casing Treatment in a High Speed Axial Compressor Test Rig,” ASME Paper No. GT-2011-46315.
Hathaway, M. , 2002, “ Self-Recirculating Casing Treatment Concept for Enhanced Compressor Performance,” ASME Paper No. 2002-GT-30368.
Suder, K. L. , Hathaway, M. , Thorp, S. , Strazisar, A. , and Bright, M. , 2000, “ Compressor Stability Enhancement using discrete Tip Injection,” ASME Paper No. GT-2000-650.
Matzgeller, R. , Voges, M. , and Schroll, M. , 2011, “ Investigation of Unsteady Compressor Flow Sturcture With Tip Injection Using Particle Image Velocimetry,” ASME Paper No. GT-2011-45281.
Voges, M. , Willert, C. , Schnell, R. , Müller, M. , and Zscherp, C. , 2008, “ PIV Application for Investigation of the Rotor Blade Tip Interaction With a Casing Treatment in a Transonic Compressor Stage,” 14th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Paper No. 1060.
Wilke, I. , and Kau, H.-P. , 2002, “ A Numerical Investigation of the Influence of Casing Treatments on the Tip Leakage Flow in a HPC Front Stage,” ASME Paper No. GT-2002-30642.
Hembera, M. , Kau, H.-P. , and Johann, E. , 2008, “ Simulation of Casing Treatments of a Transonic Compressor Stage,” Int. J. Rotating Mach., 2008, p. 657202. [CrossRef]
Streit, J. , Brandstetter, C. , Heinichen, F. , and Kau, H.-P. , 2013, “ An Advanced Axial-Slot Casing Treatment on a Tip-Critical Transonic Compressor Rotor—Part 2: Taking a Closer Look With CFD,” European Turbomachinery Conference 10, Lappeenranta, Finland, Paper No. A071.
Brandstetter, C. , Kegalj, M. , Wartzek, F. , Heinichen, F. , and Schiffer, H.-P. , 2013, “ An Advanced Axial-Slot Casing Treatment on a Tip-Critical Transonic Compressor Rotor—Part 1: Unsteady Wall Pressure and Hot Wire Measurements,” European Turbomachinery Conference 10, Lappeenranta, Finland, Paper No. A070.
Brandstetter, C. , Kegalj, M. , Biela, C. , and Schiffer, H.-P. , 2011, “ PIV-Measurements in a Transonic Compressor Test Rig With Variable Inlet Guide Vanes,” International Symposium of Air Breathing Engines, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Brandstetter, C. , Kegalj, M. , Wartzek, F. , Heinichen, F. , and Schiffer, H.-P. , 2014, “ Stereo PIV Measurement of Flow Structures Underneath an Axial-Slot Casing Treatment on a One and a Half Stage Transonic Compressor,” 17th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon, Paper No. 02.4.1.91.
Biela, C. , Brandstetter, C. , Schiffer, H.-P. , and Heinichen, F. , 2013, “ Unsteady Wall Pressure Measurement in a One-and-a-Half Stage Axial Transonic Compressor During Stall Inception,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A, 227(6), pp. 646–653. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Flow structure in transonic blade tip region

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Darmstadt transonic compressor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Axial slot geometry and instrumentation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Tip Injection geometry and instrumentation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Light sheet position in axial slots

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Optical access to axial slots

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Views through cavity window toward light sheet plane

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Optical access to tip injection

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Stereo PIV camera setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

WP contours at different operating points on design speedline

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Steady-state stereo PIV results for relative in plane mach number and radial mach number; interpolation in hidden areas; all CT–rotor and CTIGV phases averaged for axial slot setup; comparison of detected shock position between PIV and WP measurements

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Example of measured PIV data, derivation of vortex structure from radial velocity; operating point NSSC of smooth casing setup

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Local relative standard deviation of WP at NS operating points

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Comparison of WP and PIV shock detection; variance of shock position depending on phase between rotor and CT increases toward lower mass flow

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Time resolved injection process measured with phase locked PIV for axial slot configuration at NSAS operating point. The rotor is locked, CT travels upward; four time-steps from left to right; interpolation in hidden areas; all CTIGV phases averaged.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Shock positions 17 revolutions before first stall cell for axial slots while closing throttle from NSAS to stall; variance of shock position increasing to ± 20% of blade spacing (t)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Shock positions 110 revolutions before first stall cell for axial slot configuration at design speedline; constantly closing throttle; unsteady WP measurements at 500 kHz sampling rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Development of normalized recirculation velocity inside axial slots CT for different operating points on design speedline and before stall inception; measured via hot wire probe inside CT cavity

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In