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Research Papers

Full-Scale Turbine Vane Endwall Film-Cooling Effectiveness Distribution Using Pressure-Sensitive Paint Technique

[+] Author and Article Information
Chao-Cheng Shiau

Turbine Heat Transfer Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843-3123
e-mail: joeshiau@tamu.edu

Andrew F Chen

Turbine Heat Transfer Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843-3123
e-mail: myandychen@tamu.edu

Je-Chin Han

Turbine Heat Transfer Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Texas A&M University,
College Station, TX 77843-3123
e-mail: jc-han@tamu.edu

Salam Azad

Siemens Energy, Inc.,
Orlando, FL 32826-2399
e-mail: salam.azad@siemens.com

Ching-Pang Lee

Siemens Energy, Inc.,
Orlando, FL 32826-2399
e-mail: ching-pang.lee@siemens.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received November 9, 2015; final manuscript received November 24, 2015; published online January 12, 2016. Editor: Kenneth C. Hall.Permission for use: The content of this paper is copyrighted by Siemens Energy, Inc. and is licensed to ASME for publication and distribution only. Any inquiries regarding permission to use the content of this paper, in whole or in part, for any purpose must be addressed to Siemens Energy, Inc. directly.

J. Turbomach 138(5), 051002 (Jan 12, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: TURBO-15-1253; doi: 10.1115/1.4032166 History: Received November 09, 2015; Revised November 24, 2015

Researchers in gas turbine field take great interest in the cooling performance on the first-stage vane because of the complex flow characteristics and intensive heat load that comes from the exit of the combustion chamber. A better understanding is needed on how the coolant flow interacts with the mainstream and the resulting cooling effect in the real engine especially for the first-stage vane. An authentic flow channel and condition should be achieved. In this study, three full-scale turbine vanes are used to construct an annular-sector cascade. The film-cooling design is attained through numerous layback fan-shaped and cylindrical holes dispersed on the vane and both endwalls. With the three-dimensional vane geometry and corresponding wind tunnel design, the true flow field can thus be simulated as in the engine. This study targets the film-cooling effectiveness on the inner endwall (hub) of turbine vane. Tests are performed under the mainstream Reynolds number 350,000; the related inlet Mach number is 0.09; and the freestream turbulence intensity is 8%. Two variables, coolant-to-mainstream mass flow ratios (MFR = 2%, 3%, and 4%) and density ratios (DR = 1.0 and 1.5), are examined. Pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) technique is utilized to capture the detail contour of film-cooling effectiveness on the inner endwall and demonstrate the coolant trace. The presented results serve as a comparison basis for other sets of vanes with different cooling designs. The results are expected to strengthen the promise of PSP technique on evaluating the film-cooling performance of the engine geometries.

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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of vane cascade and test facility: (a) annular-sector cascade, (b) test facility view from upstream, and (c) test facility view from downstream

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Fig. 3

Flow deflector caps for (a) inner plenum and (b) outer plenum

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Fig. 4

Perforated plates for (a) inner plenum and (b) outer plenum (numbers in figures arecm)

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Fig. 5

Planar projected cooling hole distribution on the vane test section

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Fig. 6

Test section in the camera point of view: (a) downstream view and (b) upstream view

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Fig. 7

PSP working principle and calibration: (a) PSP working principle, (b) calibration results for Tref = 22 °C, (c) calibration results for Tref as operating temperature, and (d) calibration results for different camera view angles

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Fig. 8

Test section painted with PSP: (a) downstream view and (b) upstream view

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Fig. 9

Mach number distribution: (a) downstream view and (b) upstream view. Black regions indicate the vanes; black line indicates X5  = x/C = 0.9; pink-dashed lines indicate targeted endwall region; and red bold arrows indicate mainstream direction.

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Fig. 10

Cross flow visualization (DR = 1.5, MFR = 4%): (a) downstream view and (b) upstream view. Black regions indicate the vanes; black line indicates X5  = x/C = 0.9; pink-dashed lines indicate targeted endwall region; and red bold arrows indicate mainstream direction.

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Fig. 11

Film-cooling effectiveness distributions of test section at DR = 1.0 from downstream view and upstream view: (a) MFR = 2%, (b) MFR = 3%, and (c) MFR = 4%. Black regions indicate the vanes; pink-dashed lines indicate the targeted endwall region; and red bold arrows indicate mainstream direction.

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Fig. 12

Film-cooling effectiveness distributions of test section at DR = 1.5 from downstream view and upstream view: (a) MFR = 2%, (b) MFR = 3%, and (c) MFR = 4%. Black regions indicate the vanes; pink-dashed lines indicate the targeted endwall region; and red bold arrows indicate mainstream direction.

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Fig. 13

Lateral (spanwise)-averaged film-cooling effectiveness in the cases studied (with the coordinates defined in Fig. 5 and Table 1)

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