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Research Papers

Roughness Effects on Flow and Heat Transfer for Additively Manufactured Channels

[+] Author and Article Information
Curtis K. Stimpson

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical
and Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
127 Reber Building,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: curtis.stimpson@psu.edu

Jacob C. Snyder

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical
and Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
127 Reber Building,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: jacob.snyder@psu.edu

Karen A. Thole

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical
and Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
136 Reber Building,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: kthole@psu.edu

Dominic Mongillo

Mem. ASME
Pratt & Whitney,
400 Main Street,
East Hartford, CT 06118
e-mail: dominic.mongillo@pw.utc.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received November 12, 2015; final manuscript received November 20, 2015; published online January 27, 2016. Editor: Kenneth C. Hall.

J. Turbomach 138(5), 051008 (Jan 27, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: TURBO-15-1255; doi: 10.1115/1.4032167 History: Received November 12, 2015; Revised November 20, 2015

Recent technological advances in the field of additive manufacturing (AM), particularly with direct metal laser sintering (DMLS), have increased the potential for building gas turbine components with AM. Using the DMLS for turbine components broadens the design space and allows for increasingly small and complex geometries to be fabricated with little increase in time or cost. Challenges arise when attempting to evaluate the advantages of the DMLS for specific applications, particularly because of how little is known regarding the effects of surface roughness. This paper presents pressure drop and heat transfer results of flow through small, as produced channels that have been manufactured using the DMLS in an effort to better understand roughness. Ten different coupons made with the DMLS all having multiple rectangular channels were evaluated in this study. Measurements were collected at various flow conditions and reduced to a friction factor and a Nusselt number. Results showed significant augmentation of these parameters compared to smooth channels, particularly with the friction factor for minichannels with small hydraulic diameters. However, augmentation of Nusselt number did not increase proportionally with the augmentation of the friction factor.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

CAD model rendering of L-2x test coupon

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Fig. 2

Image showing (a) build orientation of DMLS coupons with support structures and (b) orientation of channel surfaces relative to build direction

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Fig. 3

CT data and fitted surface of the lower surface of one channel of the M-2x-In coupon (note: coordinate axes have different scales)

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Fig. 4

Comparison of surface fit to CT scan data of the lower surface of one channel of the M-2x-In coupon

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Fig. 5

Image of the opening of a single channel of the M-2x-Co coupon (a) digitally reconstructed from CT scan data and (b) collected with a light microscope

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Fig. 6

Contour plots of region from (a) surface facing upward during fabrication and (b) surface facing downward during fabrication of one channel in the M-2x-In coupon

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Fig. 7

CAD image of rig used to measure pressure drop and heat transfer in additively manufactured test coupons

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Fig. 8

Cross section view of test stack

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Fig. 9

Energy balance for each test coupon and condition

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Fig. 10

Percent contribution to uncertainty values of friction factor for two extreme cases

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Fig. 11

Percent contribution to uncertainty values of Nusselt number for two extreme cases

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Fig. 12

Friction factor of rectangular channel DMLS coupons

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Fig. 13

Friction factor results showing entrance region effects in laminar region for Cyl-Al coupon plotted against data from Langhaar [22]

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Fig. 14

Channel wall convective efficiencies

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Fig. 15

Nusselt number of rectangular channel DMLS coupons

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Fig. 16

Heat transfer augmentation versus friction factor augmentation of rectangular channel DMLS coupons

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