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Research Papers

Direct Numerical Simulations of a High-Pressure Turbine Vane

[+] Author and Article Information
Andrew P. S. Wheeler

Whittle Laboratory,
University of Cambridge,
Cambridge CB3 0DY, UK
e-mail: a.wheeler@eng.cam.ac.uk

Richard D. Sandberg, Neil D. Sandham, Richard Pichler

Engineering and the Environment,
University of Southampton,
Southampton So17 1BJ, UK

Vittorio Michelassi

GE Global Research,
Munich D-85748, Germany

Greg Laskowski

GE Aviation,
Lynn, MA 01905

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received October 21, 2015; final manuscript received December 18, 2015; published online February 17, 2016. Editor: Kenneth C. Hall.

J. Turbomach 138(7), 071003 (Feb 17, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: TURBO-15-1231; doi: 10.1115/1.4032435 History: Received October 21, 2015; Revised December 18, 2015

In this paper, we establish a benchmark data set of a generic high-pressure (HP) turbine vane generated by direct numerical simulation (DNS) to resolve fully the flow. The test conditions for this case are a Reynolds number of 0.57 × 106 and an exit Mach number of 0.9, which is representative of a modern transonic HP turbine vane. In this study, we first compare the simulation results with previously published experimental data. We then investigate how turbulence affects the surface flow physics and heat transfer. An analysis of the development of loss through the vane passage is also performed. The results indicate that freestream turbulence tends to induce streaks within the near-wall flow, which augment the surface heat transfer. Turbulent breakdown is observed over the late suction surface, and this occurs via the growth of two-dimensional Kelvin–Helmholtz spanwise roll-ups, which then develop into lambda vortices creating large local peaks in the surface heat transfer. Turbulent dissipation is found to significantly increase losses within the trailing-edge region of the vane.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Surface curvature of vane determined from published manufacturing coordinates of Ref. [1] and the corrected profile used in this study

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Fig. 2

Snapshot of isosurface of Q-criterion = 25 with inlet freestream turbulence Tu=3.5%. Isosurface colored with spanwise velocity w normalized by the inlet velocity (block 2 shown).

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Fig. 3

Power spectral density of total velocity upstream of the vane leading-edge (x=−0.3, y = 0.0) and within the wake (x = 1.017, y=−1.49)

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Fig. 4

Mesh block structure and mesh details at the leading and trailing-edges. Every fourth grid line is shown (mesh A).

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Fig. 5

Spanwise mode amplitudes (mesh A)

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Fig. 6

Sensitivity of wall shear stress to mesh density

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Fig. 7

Near-wall grid size measured in wall units (mesh A)

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Fig. 8

Boundary layer time-average velocity profiles, 125 grid points shown (mesh A)

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Fig. 9

Ratio of in-plane cell size to Kolmogorov length-scale computed from time-average turbulent dissipation for mesh A

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Fig. 10

Isentropic Mach number distribution and comparison with experimental data of Arts et al. [1]

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Fig. 11

Comparison of time-average loss and exit angle with experimental data of Arts et al. [1] determined at 40%Cax axial chord downstream of the trailing-edge

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Fig. 12

Comparison of predicted heat flux with experimental data of Arts et al. [1]

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Fig. 13

Two instantaneous snapshots (Δt=0.12) showing contours of density gradient magnitude (gray scale) and gas temperature at the first grid point away from the wall (color scale). Marked on the figure are: (a) upstream moving pressure waves, (b) development of 2d spanwise instabilities over the aft suction surface, (c) fluctuations in surface heat flux due to pressure wave reflections, and (d) near-wall streaks

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Fig. 14

Space–time diagrams of surface shear, heat flux and pressure from monitor points over the aft suction surface. The surface distance is measured from the leading-edge, and normalized by axial chord.

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Fig. 15

Isosurfaces of Q-criterion = 50 colored by spanwise velocity in the region of transition

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Fig. 16

Isosurfaces of vorticity magnitude = 1000 colored by density within transition region

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Fig. 17

Power spectral density at two near-wall monitor points (y+≈1) and a monitor point within the wake

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Fig. 18

Instantaneous snapshot showing contours of gas temperature at the first grid point away from the wall

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Fig. 19

Isosurfaces of Q-criterion = 25 colored by spanwise velocity near the leading-edge

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Fig. 20

Rise in irreversible entropy through the vane passage and downstream

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