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Research Papers

Delay of Rotating Stall in Compressors Using Plasma Actuators

[+] Author and Article Information
Farzad Ashrafi

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
École Polytechnique de Montréal,
2900 Boulevard Edouard-Montpetit,
2500 Chemin de Polytechnique,
Montreal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada
e-mail: farzad.ashrafi@polymtl.ca

Mathias Michaud

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
École Polytechnique de Montréal,
2900 Boulevard Edouard-Montpetit,
2500 Chemin de Polytechnique,
Montreal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada
e-mail: mathias.michaud@polymtl.ca

Huu Duc Vo

Mem. ASME
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
École Polytechnique de Montréal,
2900 Boulevard Edouard-Montpetit,
2500 Chemin de Polytechnique,
Montreal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada
e-mail: huu-duc.vo@polymtl.ca

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received January 28, 2016; final manuscript received February 3, 2016; published online April 12, 2016. Editor: Kenneth C. Hall.

J. Turbomach 138(9), 091009 (Apr 12, 2016) (12 pages) Paper No: TURBO-16-1022; doi: 10.1115/1.4032840 History: Received January 28, 2016; Revised February 03, 2016

Rotating stall is a well-known aerodynamic instability in compressors that limits the operating envelope of aircraft gas turbine engines. An innovative method for delaying the most common form of rotating stall inception using an annular dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator had been proposed. A DBD plasma actuator is a simple solid-state device that converts electricity directly into flow acceleration through partial air ionization. However, the proposed concept had only been preliminarily evaluated with numerical simulations on an isolated axial rotor using a relatively basic CFD code. This paper provides both an experimental and a numerical assessment of this concept for an axial compressor stage as well as a centrifugal compressor stage, with both stages being part of a low-speed two-stage axial-centrifugal compressor test rig. The two configurations studied are the two-stage configuration with a 100 mN/m annular casing plasma actuator placed just upstream of the axial rotor leading edge (LE) and the single-stage centrifugal compressor with the same actuator placed upstream of the impeller LE. The tested configurations were simulated with a commercial RANS CFD code (ansys cfx) in which was implemented the latest engineering DBD plasma model and dynamic throttle boundary condition, using single-passage multiple blade row computational domains. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations indicate that in both types of compressors, the actuator delays the stall inception by pushing the incoming/tip clearance flow interface downstream into the blade passage. In each case, the predicted reduction in stalling mass flow matches the experimental value reasonably well.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
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Figures

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Fig. 2

Two types of rotating stall inception

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Fig. 3

Criteria for spike stall inception [10]: (a) criterion 1 and (b) criterion 2

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Fig. 4

Schematic of a DBD plasma actuator [15]

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Fig. 5

Concept of plasma flow actuation for suppression of rotating stall inception [15]: (a) side view and (b) top view—radial plane just below blade tip

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Fig. 6

Low-speed axial-centrifugal compressor test rig with instrumentation [30]

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Fig. 7

Cross section of compressor test rig with instrumentation

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Fig. 8

String technique for rotating stall detection

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Fig. 10

DBD actuator integration for impeller

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Fig. 9

DBD actuator integration for axial rotor

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Fig. 11

Two-stage compressor computational domain for plasma actuation on the axial rotor

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Fig. 12

Single-stage centrifugal compressor computational domain with spatial body force distribution

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Fig. 13

CFD assessment of plasma actuation at axial rotor LE: (a) total-to-static pressure rise characteristics for the two-stage compressor and (b) total-to-static pressure rise characteristics of the axial rotor

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Fig. 14

Experimental versus CFD assessment of plasma actuation at axial rotor LE: (a) total-to-static pressure rise characteristics for the two-stage compressor and (b) total-to-static pressure rise characteristics of the axial rotor

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Fig. 15

Spanwise variation of measured total pressure rise coefficient at rotor outlet at design corrected mass flow (0.30 kg/s)

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Fig. 16

CFD prediction of centrifugal compressor total-to-static pressure rise characteristics at 4400 rpm without plasma actuation

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Fig. 17

Variation in recirculation zone size near diffuser shroud for points 18, 22, and 24 in Fig. 16

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Fig. 18

Explanation for evolution of recirculation zone near vaneless diffuser shroud

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Fig. 19

CFD assessment of plasma actuation at impeller LE for centrifugal stage operating alone

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Fig. 20

Experimental versus CFD assessment of plasma actuation at impeller LE for centrifugal stage operating alone

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Fig. 21

Spanwise variation of total pressure rise coefficient at impeller exit at design corrected mass flow (0.30 kg/s)

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Fig. 22

Spanwise variation of total pressure rise coefficient at diffuser exit at design corrected mass flow (0.30 kg/s)

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