0
Research Papers

Modeling Nonuniform Bleed in Axial Compressors

[+] Author and Article Information
S. D. Grimshaw

Whittle Laboratory,
University of Cambridge,
1 JJ Thomson Avenue,
Cambridge CB3 0DY, UK
e-mail: sdg33@cam.ac.uk

G. Pullan, T. P. Hynes

Whittle Laboratory,
University of Cambridge,
1 JJ Thomson Avenue,
Cambridge CB3 0DY, UK

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received January 29, 2016; final manuscript received February 15, 2016; published online April 12, 2016. Editor: Kenneth C. Hall.

J. Turbomach 138(9), 091010 (Apr 12, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: TURBO-16-1024; doi: 10.1115/1.4032845 History: Received January 29, 2016; Revised February 15, 2016

The coupling between the bleed system and the flowfield of a downstream compressor stage is studied using two approaches. In the first approach, three-dimensional, full annulus, unsteady computations simulate the flow in a low-speed research compressor with nonuniform bleed extraction. Comparisons with experimental data show that the flow prediction in the main annulus is accurate to within 0.005 of flow coefficient and 0.5deg of flow angle. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is then used to provide a description of flow within the bleed system itself. In the second approach, a two-dimensional mean radius model, similar to that adopted by Hynes and Greitzer in the previous work on compressor stability, is used to simulate the response of the compressor to nonuniform bleed. This model is validated against experimental data for a single-stage compressor, and despite the inherent assumptions (two-dimensional flow and simplified compressor response), provides a satisfactory prediction of the flow for preliminary design purposes with orders of magnitude less computational cost than full 3D CFD. The model is then used to investigate the effect of different levels of bleed nonuniformity and of varying the axial distance between the bleed and the downstream stage. Reducing bleed nonuniformity and moving the stage away from the bleed slot are predicted to reduce the circumferential nonuniformity of the flow entering the stage.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Conan, F. , and Savarese, S. , 2001, “ Bleed Airflow CFD Modelling in Aerodynamics Simulations of Jet Engine Compressors,” ASME Paper No. 2001-GT-0544.
Wellborn, S. R. , and Koiro, M. , 2002, “ Bleed Flow Interactions With an Axial Flow Compressor Powerstream,” AIAA Paper No. 2002-4057.
Di Mare, L. , Simpson, G. , Mueck, B. , and Sayma, A. , 2006, “ Effect of Bleed Flows on Flutter and Forced Response of Core Compressors,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-90683.
Leishman, B. A. , Cumpsty, N. A. , and Denton, J. D. , 2007, “ Effects of Bleed Rate and Endwall Location on the Aerodynamic Behavior of a Circular Hole Bleed Off-Take,” ASME J. Turbomach., 129(4), pp. 645–658. [CrossRef]
Leishman, B. A. , Cumpsty, N. A. , and Denton, J. D. , 2007, “ Effects of Inlet Ramp Surfaces on the Aerodynamic Behavior of Bleed Hole and Bleed Slot Off-Take Configurations,” ASME J. Turbomach., 129(4), pp. 659–668. [CrossRef]
Leishman, B. A. , and Cumpsty, N. A. , 2007, “ Mechanism of the Interaction of a Ramped Bleed Slot With the Primary Flow,” ASME J. Turbomach., 129(4), pp. 669–678. [CrossRef]
Grimshaw, S. D. , Pullan, G. , and Walker, T. , 2015, “ Bleed-Induced Distortion in Axial Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(10), p. 101009.
Gomes, R. , Schwarz, C. , and Peitzner, M. , 2005, “ Aerodynamic Investigations of a Compressor Bleed Air Configuration Typical for Aeroengines,” Paper No. ISABE-2005-1264.
Gomes, R. , and Schwarz, C. , 2006, “ Experimental Investigation of a Generic Compressor Bleed System,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-90458.
Reid, C. , 1969, “ The Response of Axial Flow Compressors to Intake Flow Distortion,” ASME Paper No. 69-GT-29.
Rosic, B. R. , Mazzoni, C. M. , and Bignell, Z. , 2014, “ Aerodynamic Analysis of Steam Turbine Feed-Heating Steam Extractions,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 136(11), p. 112602.
Gunn, E. J. , and Hall, C. A. , 2014, “ Aerodynamics of Boundary Layer Ingesting Fans,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-26142.
Brandvik, T. , and Pullan, G. , 2011, “ An Accelerated 3D Navier–Stokes Solver for Flows in Turbomachines,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133(2), p. 021025.
Hynes, T. P. , and Greitzer, E. M. , 1987, “ A Method for Assessing Effects of Circumferential Flow Distortion on Compressor Stability,” ASME J. Turbomach., 109(3), pp. 371–379. [CrossRef]
Graf, M. B. , Wong, T. S. , Greitzer, E. M. , Marble, F. E. , Tan, C. S. , Shin, H. W. , and Wisler, D. C. , 1998, “ Effects of Nonaxisymmetric Tip Clearance on Axial Compressor Performance and Stability,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120(4), pp. 648–661. [CrossRef]
Young, A. M. , 2012, Tip-Clearance Effects in Axial Compressors, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
Chue, R. , Hynes, T. P. , Greitzer, E. M. , Tan, C. S. , and Longley, J. P. , 1989, “ Calculations of Inlet Distortion Induced Compressor Flow Field Instability,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 10(3), pp. 211–223. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Meridional view of test compressor showing measurement planes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Comparison of passage-averaged experimental and CFD data, ϕ¯stage=0.43. (a) Rig inlet, (b) upstream of bleed slot, (c) stage inlet, (d) downstream of rotor, and (e) downstream of stator.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Downstream of stator row, CFD calculated flow field, ϕ¯stage=0.43 and bleed rate = 4.2%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

CFD calculated local bleed rate at 80% of slot height compared with experimental measurements, ϕ¯stage=0.43 and bleed rate = 4.2%. The CFD local bleed rate is averaged over 6 deg sections.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Passage-averaged distribution of stagnation pressure coefficient at stage inlet and downstream of rotor, ϕ¯stage=0.43 and bleed rate = 4.2%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Downstream of rotor row, CFD calculated flow field, ϕ¯stage=0.43 and bleed rate = 4.2%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Stage inlet, CFD calculated flow field, ϕ¯stage=0.43 and bleed rate = 4.2%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Upstream of slot, CFD calculated flow field, ϕ¯stage=0.43 and bleed rate = 4.2%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Rig inlet, CFD calculated flow field, ϕ¯stage=0.43 and bleed rate = 4.2%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

CFD calculated contours of radial velocity coefficient at different circumferential locations. Overlaid are projected streamlines in the same plane as the contours, ϕ¯stage=0.43 and bleed rate = 4.2%. (a) −90 deg from center of duct, (b) −10 deg from center of duct, (c) 0 deg from center of duct, and (d) 10 deg from center of duct.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

CFD calculated streamlines in bleed system. Streamlines are seeded in the off-take duct and traced backward toward the plenum chamber and bleed slot, ϕ¯stage=0.43 and bleed rate = 4.2%. (a) Front-on view and (b) top-down view.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Flow coefficient upstream and downstream of the row of sinks evaluated from the potential flow model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Flow angle upstream and downstream of the row of sinks evaluated from the potential flow model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Distribution of flow coefficient at stage inlet with different models for λ (a) ϕ¯stage=0.43 and (b) ϕ¯stage=0.38

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Distribution of flow coefficient at stage inlet with modifications to ψ (a) ϕ¯stage=0.43 and (b) ϕ¯stage=0.38

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Relative flow angle distributions at stage inlet for different levels of bleed nonuniformity, ϕ¯stage=0.38. (a) Local bleed extraction rate, % and (b) distribution of relative flow angle, αrel.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Measured spanwise distributions of flow angle at different circumferential locations, ϕ¯stage=0.43. (a) Upstream of bleed slot and (b) downstream of bleed slot.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Comparison of passage-averaged experimental data and model output upstream of bleed slot, ϕ¯stage=0.43. (a) Distribution of flow coefficient, ϕ, (b) distribution of absolute flow angle, α, and (c) distribution of relative flow angle, αrel.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Comparison of passage-averaged experimental data and model output upstream of bleed slot, ϕ¯stage=0.38. (a) Distribution of flow coefficient, ϕ, (b) distribution of absolute flow angle, α, and (c) distribution of relative flow angle, αrel.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Comparison of passage-averaged experimental data and model output downstream of bleed slot, ϕ¯stage=0.43. (a) Distribution of flow coefficient, ϕ, (b) distribution of absolute flow angle, α, and (c) distribution of relative flow angle, αrel.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Comparison of passage-averaged experimental data and model output downstream of bleed slot, ϕ¯stage=0.38. (a) Distribution of flow coefficient, ϕ, (b) distribution of absolute flow angle, α, and (c) distribution of relative flow angle, αrel.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Relative flow angle distributions at stage inlet with different axial spacing between bleed and stage, ϕ¯stage=0.38

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In