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Research Papers

Impact of Compressor Surge on Performance and Emissions of a Marine Diesel Engine

[+] Author and Article Information
Nikolaos-Alexandros Vrettakos

Laboratory of Marine Engineering,
National Technical University of Athens,
P.O. Box 64501, Zografos Campus,
Athens 15704, Greece
e-mail: nvrettakos@lme.ntua.gr

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received September 29, 2015; final manuscript received March 22, 2016; published online April 26, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Knox T. Millsaps.

J. Turbomach 138(10), 101004 (Apr 26, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: TURBO-15-1230; doi: 10.1115/1.4033186 History: Received September 29, 2015; Revised March 22, 2016

The operation during compressor surge of a medium speed marine diesel engine was examined on a test bed. The compressor of the engine's turbocharger was forced to operate beyond the surge line, by injecting compressed air at the engine intake manifold, downstream of the compressor during steady-state engine operation. While the compressor was surging, detailed measurements of turbocharger and engine performance parameters were conducted. The measurements included the use of constant temperature anemometry for the accurate measurement of air velocity fluctuations at the compressor inlet during the surge cycles. Measurements also covered engine performance parameters such as in-cylinder pressure and the impact of compressor surge on the composition of the exhaust gas emitted from the engine. The measurements describe in detail the response of a marine diesel engine to variations caused by compressor surge. The results show that both turbocharger and engine performance are affected by compressor surge and fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis proved that they oscillate at the same main frequency. Also, prolonged steady-state operation of the engine with this form of compressor surge led to a non-negligible increase of NOx emissions.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The MAN B&W 5L 16/24 research engine

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Fig. 2

The air injection line used to trigger compressor surge

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Fig. 3

Engine schematic and instrumentation outline

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Fig. 4

Instrumentation installed at the turbocharger (compressor side)

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Fig. 5

The HWA and HFA probes which were used for application of CTA at the compressor inlet

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Fig. 6

Calibration curves created for correlation of the HWA signal to air mass flow rate

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Fig. 7

Engine operating envelope and the operating points where air injection experiments took

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Fig. 8

Compressor map and the operating points where air injection experiments took place

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Fig. 9

Time series of measured air flow rate injected inside the engine intake manifold (FT901)

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Fig. 10

Time series of measured compressor outlet and engine charge air pressure (PE102 and PE303)

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Fig. 11

Time series of measured compressor inlet pressure (PE101)

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Fig. 12

Magnification of measured compressor inlet pressure (PE101)

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Fig. 13

Time series of measured HWA and HFA signals

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Fig. 14

Time series of measured compressor air flow rate (DPT1, HWA, and HFA)

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Fig. 15

Locus of measured air flow rate against measured pressure ratio interposed on extended compressor map, using the anemometer's measurements (a) and the measurements of the ISO 5167-3 nozzle (b)

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Fig. 16

Time series of measured turbocharger shaft speed (SE601)

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Fig. 17

FFT of measured compressor performance parameters

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Fig. 18

Magnification of Fig. 17

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Fig. 19

Time series of measured engine fuel rack position (ZT 403)

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Fig. 20

Time series of measured engine shaft speed (SE402)

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Fig. 21

Time series of measured engine shaft torque (ME402)

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Fig. 22

Time series of measured engine exhaust temperature (TE503 and TE501)

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Fig. 23

Time series of measured air temperature at intake side (TE101, TE201, and TT303)

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Fig. 24

Engine cylinder 1 and 5 pressure at top dead center (PE401 and PE405)

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Fig. 25

Engine cylinder 1 and 5 maximum combustion pressure (PE401 and PE405)

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Fig. 26

Engine cylinder 1 and 5 indicated mean effective pressure (PE401 and PE405)

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Fig. 27

Engine cylinder 1 and 5 crank angle ATDC where pressure was maximized (PE401 and PE405)

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Fig. 28

Time series of measured exhaust gas concentration (EMIS701)

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