The operation during compressor surge of a medium speed marine diesel engine was examined on a test bed. The compressor of the engine's turbocharger was forced to operate beyond the surge line, by injecting compressed air at the engine intake manifold, downstream of the compressor during steady-state engine operation. While the compressor was surging, detailed measurements of turbocharger and engine performance parameters were conducted. The measurements included the use of constant temperature anemometry for the accurate measurement of air velocity fluctuations at the compressor inlet during the surge cycles. Measurements also covered engine performance parameters such as in-cylinder pressure and the impact of compressor surge on the composition of the exhaust gas emitted from the engine. The measurements describe in detail the response of a marine diesel engine to variations caused by compressor surge. The results show that both turbocharger and engine performance are affected by compressor surge and fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis proved that they oscillate at the same main frequency. Also, prolonged steady-state operation of the engine with this form of compressor surge led to a non-negligible increase of NOx emissions.