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Research Papers

Simulation of Deep Surge in a Turbocharger Compression System

[+] Author and Article Information
Rick Dehner

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
The Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43210
e-mail: dehner.10@osu.edu

Ahmet Selamet

Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
The Ohio State University,
Columbus, OH 43210
e-mail: selamet.1@osu.edu

Philip Keller

BorgWarner, Inc.,
Auburn Hills, MI 48326

Michael Becker

BorgWarner, Inc.,
Ludwigsburg 71636, Germany

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received January 15, 2016; final manuscript received February 29, 2016; published online May 10, 2016. Editor: Kenneth C. Hall.

J. Turbomach 138(11), 111002 (May 10, 2016) (12 pages) Paper No: TURBO-16-1014; doi: 10.1115/1.4033260 History: Received January 15, 2016; Revised February 29, 2016

Large-amplitude deep surge instabilities are studied in a turbocharger compression system with a one-dimensional (1D) engine simulation code. The system consists of an upstream compressor duct open to ambient, a centrifugal compressor, a downstream compressor duct, a large plenum, and a throttle valve exhausting to ambient. As the compressor mass flow rate is reduced below the peak pressure ratio for a given speed, mild surge oscillations occur at the Helmholtz resonance of the system, and a further reduction in flow rate results in deep surge considerably below the Helmholtz resonance. At the boundary with mild surge, the deep surge cycles exhibit, for the particular system considered, a long cycle period containing four distinct flow phases, including quiet (stable), instability growth (mild surge), blowdown (reversal), and recovery. Further reductions in flow rate decrease the deep surge cycle period, eliminate the quiet flow phase, and shorten the duration of the instability growth phase. Simulated oscillations of nondimensional flow rate, pressure, and speed parameters show good agreement with the experimental results available in literature, in terms of deep surge cycle flow phases along with the amplitude and frequency of the resulting fluctuations. The predictions illustrate that the quiet and instability growth phases, exhibited by this compression system, disappear as the plenum volume is substantially reduced.

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References

Cumpsty, N. A. , 1989, Compressor Aerodynamics, Krieger, Malabar, FL.
Fink, D. A. , 1988, “ Surge Dynamics and Unsteady Flow Phenomena in Centrifugal Compressors,” Ph.D. thesis, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
Fink, D. A. , Cumpsty, N. A. , and Greitzer, E. M. , 1992, “ Surge Dynamics in a Free-Spool Centrifugal Compressor System,” ASME J. Turbomach., 114(2), pp. 321–332. [CrossRef]
Greitzer, E. M. , 1976, “ Surge and Rotating Stall in Axial Flow Compressors, Part I: Theoretical Compression System Model,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 98(2), pp. 190–197. [CrossRef]
Yano, T. , and Nagata, B. , 1971, “ A Study on Surging Phenomena in Diesel Engine Air-Charging System,” Jpn. Soc. Mech. Eng., 14(70), pp. 364–376. [CrossRef]
Greitzer, E. M. , 1976, “ Surge and Rotating Stall in Axial Flow Compressors, Part II: Experimental Results and Comparison With Theory,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 98(2), pp. 199–217. [CrossRef]
Uhlenhake, G. , Selamet, A. , Fogarty, K. , Tallio, K. , and Keller, P. , 2011, “ Development of an Experimental Facility to Characterize Performance, Surge, and Acoustics in Turbochargers,” SAE Paper No. 2011-01-1644.
Hansen, K. E. , Jorgensen, P. , and Larsen, P. S. , 1981, “ Experimental and Theoretical Study of Surge in a Small Centrifugal Compressor,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 103(3), pp. 391–395. [CrossRef]
Theotokatos, G. , and Kyrtatos, N. P. , 2001, “ Diesel Engine Transient Operation With Turbocharger Compressor Surging,” SAE Paper No. 2001-01-1241.
Dehner, R. , Selamet, A. , Keller, P. , and Becker, M. , 2010, “ Simulation of Mild Surge in a Turbocharger Compression System,” SAE J. Engines, 3(2), pp. 197–212.
Gamma Technologies, 2009, “ GT-Power (Version 7.0),” Gamma Technologies, Westmont, IL.
Dehner, R. , Selamet, A. , Keller, P. , and Becker, M. , 2011, “ Prediction of Surge in a Turbocharger Compression System vs. Measurements,” SAE J. Engines, 4(2), pp. 2181–2192.
Dehner, R. , 2011, “ Simulation of Surge in Turbocharger Compression Systems,” M.S. thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.
Selamet, A. , 2016, “ Deep Surge Animations,” http://engine.osu.edu
Galindo, J. , Serrano, J. R. , Climent, H. , and Tiseria, A. , 2008, “ Experiments and Modeling of Surge in Small Centrifugal Compressor for Automotive Engines,” Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci., 32(3), pp. 818–826. [CrossRef]
Emmons, H. W. , Pearson, C. E. , and Grant, H. P. , 1955, “ Compressor Surge and Stall Propagation,” Trans. ASME, 77(4), pp. 455–469.

Figures

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Fig. 1

Compressor characteristic exhibiting progressive stall

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Fig. 2

Large B compression system of Fink [2]

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Fig. 3

Fink's small (red symbols) and large (blue symbols) B compressor characteristics

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Fig. 4

Map of Fink's [2] compressor used for the model

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Fig. 5

Power absorbed by the compressor of Fink [2]

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Fig. 6

Compressor flow coefficient calculated from the hotwire velocity measurement and plenum mass balance with TDS = 3.6 s, from Fink [2]

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Fig. 7

Predicted compressor flow coefficient with TDS = 3.6 s

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Fig. 8

Deep surge experimental data of Fink [2] with TDS = 3.0 s

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Fig. 9

Deep surge prediction with TDS = 3.0 s

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Fig. 10

Experimental time-resolved large B compressor data with TDS = 3.0 s and small B time-averaged data of Fink et al. [3]

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Fig. 11

Predicted time-resolved large B nondimensional compressor and plenum operating points with TDS = 3.0 s along with small B data of Fink et al. [3]

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Fig. 12

Predicted time-resolved large B compressor and plenum operating points with TDS = 3.0 s along with the small B data of Fink [2]

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Fig. 13

Predicted pcepp with TDS = 3.0 s

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Fig. 14

Predicted, corrected compressor mass flow rate with TDS = 3.0 s

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Fig. 15

Deep surge experimental data of Fink [2] with TDS = 1.24 s

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Fig. 16

Deep surge prediction with TDS = 1.22 s

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Fig. 17

Predicted time-resolved large B nondimensional compressor and plenum operating points with TDS = 1.22 s along with small B data of Fink et al. [3]

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Fig. 18

Predicted time-resolved large B compressor and plenum operating points with TDS = 1.22 s along with the small B data of Fink [2]

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Fig. 19

Deep surge experimental data of Fink [2] with TDS = 0.70 s

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Fig. 20

Deep surge prediction with TDS = 0.68 s

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Fig. 21

Predicted time-resolved large B nondimensional compressor and plenum operating points with TDS = 0.68 s along with small B data of Fink et al. [3]

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Fig. 22

Predicted time-resolved large B compressor and plenum operating points with TDS = 0.68 s along with the small B data of Fink [2]

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Fig. 23

Predicted time-resolved large B compressor operating points with TDS = 3.0, 1.22, and 0.68 s along with small B data of Fink [2]

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Fig. 24

Predicted time-resolved large B compressor nondimensional operating points with TDS = 3.0, 1.22, and 0.68 s along with small B data of Fink et al. [3]

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Fig. 25

Peak-to-peak amplitude of rotational speed fluctuations as a function of TDS

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Fig. 26

Elimination of the quiet phase from the TDS = 3.0 s period by reducing B from 2.74 to 1.37

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Fig. 27

Elimination of both the quiet and instability growth phases from the TDS = 3.0 s period by reducing B from 2.74 to 0.53

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