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Research Papers

Film Cooling Modeling for Gas Turbine Nozzles and Blades: Validation and Application

[+] Author and Article Information
Luca Andrei

GE Oil & Gas,
via Felice Matteucci 2,
Florence 50127, Italy
e-mail: luca.andrei@ge.com

Luca Innocenti

GE Oil & Gas,
via Felice Matteucci 2,
Florence 50127, Italy
e-mail: luca1.innocenti@ge.com

Antonio Andreini

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
via di Santa Marta 3,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: antonio.andreini@htc.unifi.it

Bruno Facchini

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
via di Santa Marta 3,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: bruno.facchini@htc.unifi.it

Lorenzo Winchler

Department of Industrial Engineering,
University of Florence,
via di Santa Marta 3,
Florence 50139, Italy
e-mail: lorenzo.winchler@htc.unifi.it

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received April 15, 2016; final manuscript received June 21, 2016; published online September 8, 2016. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 139(1), 011004 (Sep 08, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: TURBO-16-1091; doi: 10.1115/1.4034233 History: Received April 15, 2016; Revised June 21, 2016

The design of modern gas turbines cooling systems cannot be separated from the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and the accurate estimation of the effect of film cooling. Nevertheless, a complete modeling of film cooling holes within the computational domain requires an effort both from the point of view of the mesh creation and from computational time. It is here proposed a new way to model the film cooling (FCM), capable of representing the effect of the coolant at hole exit. This is possible due to the introduction of local source terms near the hole exit in a delimited portion of the domain, avoiding the meshing process of perforations. The goal is to provide a reliable and accurate tool to simulate film-cooled turbine blades and nozzles without having to explicitly mesh the holes. The model was subjected to an intensive validation campaign, composed of two phases. During the first one, FCM results are compared to experimental data and numerical results (obtained with complete cooling holes meshing) on a series of test cases reproducing flat plate cooling configurations for different coolant conditions (in terms of blowing and density ratio). In the second phase, a film-cooled vane test case has been studied, in order to consider a real injection system and flow conditions: FCM predictions are compared to an in-house developed correlative approach and full conjugate heat transfer (CHT) results. Finally, a comparison between FCM predictions and experimental data was performed on an actual nozzle of a GE Oil & Gas heavy-duty gas turbine, in order to prove the feasibility of the procedure. The presented film cooling model (FCM) proved to be a feasible and reliable tool, able to evaluate adiabatic effectiveness, simplifying the design phase avoiding the meshing process of perforations.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

FCM: injection volumes shape: (a) cylinder and (b) delimited cylinder

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Fig. 2

Multirow test case: spanwise-averaged adiabatic effectiveness on the plate (a) cylinder: BR = 0.5, DR = 1; (b) cylinder: BR = 1, DR = 1; (c) cylinder: BR = 2, DR = 1; (d) delimited cylinder: BR = 0.5, DR = 1; (e) delimited cylinder: BR = 1, DR = 1; and (f) delimited cylinder: BR = 2, DR = 1

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Fig. 3

Multirow test case: coolant concentration on the meridional plane of odd holes (BR = 2 and DR = 1)

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Fig. 4

Multirow test case: adiabatic effectiveness distribution on the plate (BR = 2, DR = 1)

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Fig. 5

Cooling scheme of 1988 NASA C3X: (a) pressure side and (b) suction side

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Fig. 6

Film-cooled vane test case: spanwise-averaged adiabatic effectiveness on airfoil

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Fig. 7

Film-cooled vane test case: coolant distribution on midplane of domain

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Fig. 8

Real nozzle test case: adiabatic effectiveness distribution comparison

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Fig. 9

Real nozzle case: spanwise-averaged ηad profiles comparison

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