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Research Papers

Effect of Low-NOX Combustor Swirl Clocking on Intermediate Turbine Duct Vane Aerodynamics With an Upstream High Pressure Turbine Stage—An Experimental and Computational Study

[+] Author and Article Information
Martin Johansson

GKN Aerospace Engine Systems,
Trollhättan SE-461 81, Sweden
e-mail: martin.mj.johansson@gknaerospace.com

Thomas Povey, Kam Chana

Department of Engineering Science,
University of Oxford,
Oxford OX1 3PJ, UK

Hans Abrahamsson

GKN Aerospace Engine Systems,
Trollhättan SE-461 81, Sweden

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received January 5, 2016; final manuscript received July 1, 2016; published online September 13, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Ardeshir (Ardy) Riahi.

J. Turbomach 139(1), 011006 (Sep 13, 2016) (11 pages) Paper No: TURBO-16-1005; doi: 10.1115/1.4034311 History: Received January 05, 2016; Revised July 01, 2016

Flow in an intermediate turbine duct (ITD) is highly complex, influenced by the upstream turbine stage flow structures, which include tip leakage flow and nonuniformities originating from the upstream high pressure turbine (HPT) vane and rotor. The complexity of the flow structures makes predicting them using numerical methods difficult, hence there exists a need for experimental validation. To evaluate the flow through an intermediate turbine duct including a turning vane, experiments were conducted in the Oxford Turbine Research Facility (OTRF). This is a short duration high speed test facility with a 3/4 engine-sized turbine, operating at the correct nondimensional parameters for aerodynamic and heat transfer measurements. The current configuration consists of a high pressure turbine stage and a downstream duct including a turning vane, for use in a counter-rotating turbine configuration. The facility has the ability to simulate low-NOx combustor swirl at the inlet to the turbine stage. This paper presents experimental aerodynamic results taken with three different turbine stage inlet conditions: a uniform inlet flow and two low-NOx swirl profiles (different clocking positions relative to the high pressure turbine vane). To further explain the flow through the 1.5 stage turbine, results from unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are included. The effect of varying the high pressure turbine vane inlet condition on the total pressure field through the 1.5 stage turbine, the intermediate turbine duct vane loading, and intermediate turbine duct exit condition are discussed and CFD results are compared with experimental data. The different inlet conditions are found to alter the flow exiting the high pressure turbine rotor. This is seen to have local effects on the intermediate turbine duct vane. With the current stator–stator vane count of 32-24, the effect of relative clocking between the two is found to have a larger effect on the aerodynamics in the intermediate turbine duct than the change in the high pressure turbine stage inlet condition. Given the severity of the low-NOx swirl profiles, this is perhaps surprising.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the OTRF

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Fig. 3

Secondary flow vectors profile from swirl generator measured by Qureshi and Povey [22]

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Fig. 4

Clocking of swirl system relative to HPT vane leading edge

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Fig. 5

Meridional view of the HPT stage, ITD, and deswirl. The dashed lines show the location of domain inlet and outlet. The dotted lines indicate the HPT vane, HPT rotor, and ITD vane exit planes.

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Fig. 6

CFD domain with mesh lines along hub and vane/blade surfaces. Also, zoomed in on the ITD vane leading edge/hub region.

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Fig. 7

Time-averaged CFD results of Mach number along the surfaces of two adjacent HPT vanes at 10%, 50%, and 90% height

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Fig. 8

Surface streamlines from CFD on the HPT vane pressure and suction side for swirl 1

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Fig. 9

Time and tangentially averaged radial Mach number, total pressure, and whirl angle profiles at the HPT vane exit

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Fig. 10

Time-averaged CFD results of static pressure along HPT blade surfaces, at 10%, 50%, and 90% height

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Fig. 11

Time and tangentially averaged radial Mach number, total pressure, and whirl angle profiles at HPT rotor exit

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Fig. 12

Time-averaged CFD contours of total pressure at HPT rotor exit

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Fig. 13

Static pressure along ITD vane surface at 10%, 50%, and 90% on three adjacent vanes for three HPT stage inlet conditions

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Fig. 14

Time-averaged static pressure at 10%, 50%, and 90% on ITD vane 2 with maximum and minimum envelopes from unsteady CFD for uniform inlet to the HPT stage

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Fig. 15

Static pressure along three adjacent ITD vane surfaces at 10% with time-averaged CFD for three HPT stage inlet conditions

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Fig. 16

Time and tangentially averaged radial Mach number, total pressure, and whirl angle profiles at ITD vane exit

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Fig. 17

ITD exit contours of total pressure and whirl angle for three HPT stage inlet conditions

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Fig. 18

Time-averaged total pressure contours (CFD) at ITD exit for three HPT stage inlet conditions

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