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Research Papers

Heat Transfer and Pressure Loss Measurements in Additively Manufactured Wavy Microchannels

[+] Author and Article Information
Kathryn L. Kirsch

Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: kathryn.kirsch@psu.edu

Karen A. Thole

Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: kthole@engr.psu.edu

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received July 12, 2016; final manuscript received July 18, 2016; published online September 13, 2016. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 139(1), 011007 (Sep 13, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: TURBO-16-1155; doi: 10.1115/1.4034342 History: Received July 12, 2016; Revised July 18, 2016

The role of additive manufacturing for the hot section components of gas turbine engines grows ever larger as progress in the industry continues. The opportunity for the heat transfer community is to exploit the use of additive manufacturing in developing nontraditional cooling schemes to be built directly into components. This study investigates the heat transfer and pressure loss performance of additively manufactured wavy channels. Three coupons, each containing channels of a specified wavelength (length of one wave period), were manufactured via direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) and tested at a range of Reynolds numbers. Results show that short wavelength channels yield high pressure losses, without corresponding increases in heat transfer, due to the flow structure promoted by the waves. Longer wavelength channels offer less of a penalty in pressure drop with good heat transfer performance.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Description of the coupon build, with pertinent dimensions included. Flow direction is normal to the flange face.

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Fig. 2

Change in flow area through one period of each of the wavy channel cases

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Fig. 3

Visual representation of the test matrix used for this study

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Fig. 4

Description of the wave formulation. Flow goes left to right.

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Fig. 5

2D CT scan image. The surface determination algorithm outlined both external and internal coupon surfaces. The dark gray color represents the material and the light gray areas represent the open channels. Overlaid on the CT scan image is the design intent.

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Fig. 6

Line plots of surface roughness on two surfaces from one channel. The line is the curve fit to the surface and the scatter in the plot represents the points on the surface that deviate from the fit.

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Fig. 7

Rendering of the test section setup for both pressure loss and heat transfer measurements

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Fig. 8

Slice of the structured grid for a segment of the λ = 0.2L case

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Fig. 9

Friction factor versus Reynolds number. Included in the plot are data from additively manufactured straight rectangular channels of comparable size [11].

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Fig. 10

Velocity vectors, colored by normalized velocity, of slices through each of the wavy channel cases with Re = 5000. Slices were taken at the second full peak in the wave, as indicated above the contour slices. Note that fluid next to the left wall of the λ = 0.1L case is near zero and that a full dean vortex forms in the λ = 0.4L case.

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Fig. 11

Top-down view of normalized velocity through each of the wavy channel cases with Re = 5000. Flow goes from left to right. Note the pockets of low velocity in each peak and trough of the λ = 0.1L case.

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Fig. 12

Friction factor augmentation versus Reynolds number

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Fig. 13

Nusselt number versus Reynolds number

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Fig. 14

Nusselt number augmentation versus Reynolds number

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Fig. 15

Friction factor augmentation versus heat transfer augmentation

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