Effect of turbine endwall contouring on its aerodynamic performance has been widely studied, but only a few studies are available in the open literature investigating its effect on heat transfer performance; especially at transonic exit Mach number conditions. In this paper, we report a study of effect of contouring on endwall heat transfer performance of a high-turning high-pressure (HP) turbine blade passage operating under transonic exit conditions. The paper describes comparison of heat transfer performance of two contoured endwall geometries, one aerodynamically optimized (AO) and the other heat transfer optimized (HTO), with a baseline, noncontoured geometry. The endwall geometries were experimentally investigated at Virginia Tech's transient, blow down, transonic linear cascade facility at three exit Mach numbers, 0.71, 0.88(design) and 0.95, for their heat transfer performance. Endwall surface temperatures were measured using infrared (IR) thermography and local heat transfer coefficient (HTC) values were calculated using measured temperatures. A camera matrix model-based data postprocessing technique was developed to relate the two-dimensional images captured by IR camera to three-dimensional endwall contours. The measurement technique and the methodology for postprocessing of the heat transfer coefficient data have been presented in detail. Discussion and interpretation of experimental results have been augmented using aerodynamic CFD simulations of the geometries. Both the contoured endwalls demonstrated a significant reduction in the overall average heat transfer coefficient values of the order of 10%. The surface Stanton number distributions also indicated a reduction in the level of hot spots for most of the endwall surface. However, at some locations an increase was also observed, especially in the area near the leading edge (LE). The results indicate that the endwall contouring could significantly improve heat transfer performance of turbine passages.