Research Papers

Competing Three-Dimensional Mechanisms in Compressor Flows

[+] Author and Article Information
James V. Taylor

Whittle Laboratory,
University of Cambridge,
Cambridge CB3 0DY, UK
e-mail: jvt24@cam.ac.uk

Robert J. Miller

Whittle Laboratory,
University of Cambridge,
Cambridge CB3 0DY, UK
e-mail: rjm76@cam.ac.uk

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received August 25, 2016; final manuscript received September 1, 2016; published online October 4, 2016. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 139(2), 021009 (Oct 04, 2016) (10 pages) Paper No: TURBO-16-1210; doi: 10.1115/1.4034685 History: Received August 25, 2016; Revised September 01, 2016

Three-dimensional design is central to all modern compressor design systems, but many of these methods still rely on a two-dimensional and sectional view of aerodynamics at their core. This paper argues that this view fundamentally limits design by not considering the effect, on separation and loss, of the pressure gradient on the surface of the blade perpendicular to the meridional direction, here known as the transverse pressure gradient. The first part of the paper details how altering the transverse pressure gradient, by changing a blade's 3D stacking, switches the way in which the blade aerodynamically “fails,” from a open corner separation to a trailing edge separation. It also shows how the transverse pressure gradient significantly changes the blade profile loss. In the second part, the effect of the transverse pressure gradient on the uncertainty inherent in the compressor design space is investigated. It is shown that as blade pitch–chord ratio is raised and the amount of 3D stacking is lowered, the uncertainty of predicting a compressor's operating range is significantly raised. By increasing 3D stacking and the strength of the transverse pressure gradient, it is shown that this uncertainty can be significantly reduced.

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Fig. 1

Transverse surface pressure gradient on a compressor blade

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Fig. 2

Spanwise distribution of flow turning (CFD)

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Fig. 3

Effect of compound lean on the strength of the transverse surface pressure gradient (CFD)

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Fig. 4

Contrast between traditional model used to interpret lean and the new 3D design method (CFD)

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Fig. 5 Top

blade loss variation with incidence. Bottom: contours of stator exit loss coefficient (CFD).

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Fig. 6

Structure of 3D trailing edge separation (CFD)

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Fig. 7

Effect of transverse surface pressure gradient. Left: on surface contraction ratio. Right: on trailing edge shape factor (CFD + EXP).

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Fig. 8

Effect of transverse surface pressure gradient on transverse boundary layer flow (CFD)

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Fig. 9

Structure of corner separations (CFD)

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Fig. 10

Effect of transverse surface pressure gradient on the closed corner separation (CFD)

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Fig. 11

Instantaneous snapshots of the limiting surface streamlines below and above the critical incidence (CFD)

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Fig. 12

Definition of the corner shape factor (CFD)

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Fig. 13

Variation of endwall loss with corner shape factor at all the operating points (CFD)

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Fig. 14

Top: variation of loss structures. Bottom: variation of total loss with lean (CFD + EXP).

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Fig. 15

Axial development of 3D profile loss through the stator row (CFD)

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Fig. 16

The relationship between boundary layer shape factors (CFD + EXP)

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Fig. 17

Design space: design incidence loss (CFD)

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Fig. 18

Design space: positive incidence range (CFD)

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Fig. 19

Stator exit loss traverses in the “low risk” region of the design space (CFD + EXP)

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Fig. 20

Stator exit loss traverses in the “high risk” region of the design space (CFD + EXP)

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Fig. 21

Surface flow visualization showing the creation of the separation surface (EXP)

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Fig. 22

Variation of stator inlet incidence. Left: test facility. Right: CFD uncertainty study (CFD + EXP).

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Fig. 23

Uncertainty in the loss loops due to variation in inlet profile (CFD)

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Fig. 24

Design space: uncertainty of positive incidence range (CFD)




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