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Research Papers

Numerical Simulation of Particulates in Multistage Axial Compressors

[+] Author and Article Information
Swati Saxena, Giridhar Jothiprasad, Corey Bourassa

GE Global Research Center,
One Research Circle,
Niskayuna, NY 12309

Byron Pritchard

GE Aviation,
1 Neumann Way,
Evandale, OH 45215
e-mail: saxena@ge.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received August 23, 2016; final manuscript received September 28, 2016; published online December 7, 2016. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 139(3), 031013 (Dec 07, 2016) (9 pages) Paper No: TURBO-16-1205; doi: 10.1115/1.4034982 History: Received August 23, 2016; Revised September 28, 2016

Aircraft engines ingest airborne particulate matter, such as sand, dirt, and volcanic ash, into their core. The ingested particulate is transported by the secondary flow circuits via compressor bleeds to the high pressure turbine and may deposit resulting in turbine fouling and loss of cooling effectiveness. Prior publications focused on particulate deposition and sand erosion patterns in a single stage of a compressor or turbine. This work addresses the migration of ingested particulate through the high pressure compressor (HPC) and bleed systems. This paper describes a 3D CFD methodology for tracking particles along a multistage axial compressor and presents particulate ingestion analysis for a high pressure compressor section. The commercial CFD multiphase solver ANSYS CFX® has been used for flow and particulate simulations. Particle diameters of 20, 40, and 60 μm are analyzed. Particle trajectories and radial particulate profiles are compared for these particle diameters. The analysis demonstrates how the compressor centrifuges the particles radially toward the compressor case as they travel through the compressor; the larger diameter particles being more significantly affected. Nonspherical particles experience more drag as compared to spherical particles, and hence a qualitative comparison between spherical and nonspherical particles is shown.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Structured grid topology shown on a rotor blade surface and in tip clearance region: (a) grid near blade leading edge and (b) grid within rotor tip gap

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Fig. 2

Multistage compressor showing stages with bleeds 1 and 2: (a) front stages with bleed 1 and (b) rear stages with bleed 2

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Fig. 3

Grid sensitivity study performed with coarse and fine grids. Normalized difference in the total pressure between CFD and the throughflow model plotted against spanwise direction. The throughflow model has been matched against the test data. Compressor operating at 100% Nc. (a) Front stage inlet and (b) middle stage inlet.

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Fig. 4

Percent difference between the numerical and throughflow model stage total pressure and total temperature ratio plotted for middle stages. Compressor operating at 100% Nc. (a) Stage-wise TPR difference between CFD and throughflow model and (b) stage-wise TTR difference between CFD and throughflow model.

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Fig. 5

Particle trajectories along the HPC for 20 μm particles. Gray lines show particle tracks. Compressor operating at 100% Nc. (a) Front stages with bleed 1, (b) middle stages with bleed 2, and (c) rear stages with diffuser.

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Fig. 6

Particle trajectories along the HPC for 40 μm particles. Compressor operating at 100% Nc. (a) Front stages with bleed 1, (b) middle stages with bleed 2, and (c) rear stages with diffuser.

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Fig. 7

Particle trajectories along the HPC for 60 μm particles. Compressor operating at 100% Nc. (a) Front stages with bleed 1, (b) middle stages with bleed 2, and (c) rear stages with diffuser.

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Fig. 8

Circumferential-averaged radial particle profiles as a function of span wise direction at the HPC Inlet and at stage exit after bleed 1 for D = 20, 40, and 60 μm. (a) HPC Inlet and (b) stage exit after bleed 1.

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Fig. 9

Circumferential-averaged radial particle profiles as a function of span wise direction at the stage exit after second bleed and at HPC exit for D = 20, 40, and 60 μm. (a) Stage exit after bleed 2 and (b) diffuser exit.

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Fig. 10

Circumferential-averaged radial particle profiles as a function of span wise direction along the compressor for D = 20 μm and 40 μm particles. Peak at 70% span (blue), HPC inlet; peak at 95% span (black), stage exit after bleed 1; peak at 100% span (red), stage exit after bleed 2; peak between 65–100% span (green), HPC/diffuser exit.

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Fig. 11

Particulate mass fraction extracted by bleed 1 and bleed 2. All values are normalized against particulate mass fraction extracted at bleed 1 for 20 μm particles. Particles are assumed to be spherical. Compressor operates at 100% Nc.

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Fig. 12

Radial profiles at stage exits after bleed 1, bleed 2, and the HPC/diffuser exit for spherical (SF = 1.0) and nonspherical (SF = 0.4, 0.7) 20 μm particles. Compressor operating at 100% Nc. (a) D = 20 μm, Stage exit after bleed 1, (b) D = 20 μm, stage exit after bleed 2, and (c) D = 20 μm, diffuser/HPC exit.

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Fig. 13

Radial profiles at stage exits after bleed 1, bleed 2, and the HPC/diffuser exit for spherical (SF = 1.0) and nonspherical (SF = 0.4, 0.7) 40 μm particles. Compressor operating at 100% Nc. (a) D = 40 μm, stage exit after bleed 1, (b) D = 40 μm, stage exit after bleed 2, and (c) D = 40 μm, diffuser/HPC exit.

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Fig. 14

Radial profiles at stage exits after bleed 1, bleed 2, and the HPC/diffuser exit for spherical (SF = 1.0) and nonspherical (SF = 0.4, 0.7) 60 μm particles. Compressor operating at 100% Nc. (a) D = 60 μm, stage exit after bleed 1. (b) D = 60 μm, stage exit after bleed 2, and (c) D = 60 μm, diffuser/HPC exit.

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Fig. 15

Particulate mass fraction extracted at bleed 1 and bleed 2 for spherical (SF = 1.0) and nonspherical (SF = 0.4, 0.7) particles. All values are normalized against particulate mass fraction extracted at bleed 1 for 20 μm particles. Compressor operating at 100% Nc. (a) Bleed 1 and (b) bleed 2.

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