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Research Papers

A Compressor Fouling Review Based on an Historical Survey of ASME Turbo Expo Papers

[+] Author and Article Information
Alessio Suman, Nicola Aldi, Nicola Casari, Michele Pinelli, Pier Ruggero Spina

Dipartimento di Ingegneria,
Università degli Studi di Ferrara,
Ferrara 44122, Italy

Mirko Morini

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale,
Università degli Studi di Parma,
Parma 43124, Italy

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received April 19, 2016; final manuscript received October 25, 2016; published online January 10, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Steven E. Gorrell.

J. Turbomach 139(4), 041005 (Jan 10, 2017) (23 pages) Paper No: TURBO-16-1092; doi: 10.1115/1.4035070 History: Received April 19, 2016; Revised October 25, 2016

Fouling afflicts gas turbine operation from first time application. Filtration systems and washing operations work against air contaminants in order to limit the particles entering the compressor inlet and remove the existing deposits. In this work, a global overview of the operational experience of the manufacturer, the filtration systems, and the particle deposition of the compressor are reported. The data reported in this review have been collected from 60 years (1956–2015) of ASME Turbo Expo proceedings. This conference is recognized as the must-attend event for turbomachinery professionals. Through the years, many issues have been resolved by the contributions of this conference. Regarding the compressor fouling phenomenon, the contributions presented at the ASME Turbo Expo mark the high level of development in this field of research, thanks to the simultaneous presence of manufacturers, government, and academia attendees. The goal of the authors is to describe the technological evolution and challenges faced by manufacturers and researchers through the years, highlighting the state of the art in the knowledge of fouling, and defining the background on which further studies will be based.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
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Fouflias, D. , Gannan, A. , Ramsden, K. , Piliis, P. , and Lambart, P. , 2009, “ CFD Predictions of Cascade Pressure Losses Due to Compressor Fouling,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59158.
Morini, M. , Pinelli, M. , Spina, P. R. , and Venturini, M. , 2009, “ CFD Simulation of Fouling on Axial Compressor Stages,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59025.
Back, S. C. , Hobson, G. V. , Song, S. J. , and Millsaps, K. T. , 2010, “ Effect of Surface Roughness Location and Reynolds Number on Compressor Cascade Performance,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-22208.
Morini, M. , Pinelli, M. , Spina, P. R. , and Venturini, M. , 2010, “ Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Non-Uniform Surface Roughness on Compressor Stage Performance,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-23291.
Chen, S. , Zhang, C. , Shi, H. , Wang, S. , and Wang, Z. , 2012, “ Study on The Impact of Fouling on Axial Compressor Stage,” ASME Paper No. GT2012-68041.
Aldi, N. , Morini, M. , Pinelli, M. , Spina, P. R. , Suman, A. , and Venturini, M. , 2013, “ Performance Evaluation of Non-Uniformly Fouled Axial Compressor Stages by Means of Computational Fluid Dynamic Analyses,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-95580.
Astrua, P. , Cecchi, S. , Piola, S. , Silingardi, A. , and Bonzani, F. , 2013, “ Axial Compressor Degradation Effects on Heavy Duty Gas Turbines Overall Performances,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-95497.
Chen, S. , Sun, S. , Xu, H. , Zhang, L. , Wang, S. , and Zhang, T. , 2013, “ Influence of Local Surface Roughness of a Rotor Blade on Performance of an Axial Compressor Stage,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-94816.
Yang, H. , and Xu, H. , 2014, “ Numerical Simulation of Gas–Solid Two Phase Flow in Fouled Axial Flow Compressor,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-26365.
Gökoğlu, S. A. , and Rosner, D. E. , 1984, “ Comparisons of Rational Engineering Correlations of Thermophoretically Augmented Particle Mass Transfer With STAN5-Predictions for Developing Boundary Layers,” ASME Paper No. 84-GT-158.
El-Batsh, H. , and Haselbacher, H. , 2000, “ Effect of Turbulence Modeling on Particle Dispersion and Deposition on Compressor and Turbine Blade Surfaces,” ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-519.
El-Batsh, H. , and Haselbacher, H. , 2002, “ Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Ash Particle Deposition on the Flow Field Through Turbine Cascades,” ASME Paper No. GT2002-30600.
Kozlu, H. , and Luis, J. F. , 1986, “ Deposition Control Using Transpiration,” ASME Paper No. 86-GT-260.
Kozlu, H. , and Luis, J. F. , 1987, “ Particle Transport Across the Transpired Turbulent Boundary Layer,” ASME J. Turbomach., 109(3), pp. 436–442.
Georgiou, D. P. , and Paleos, G. , 1990, “ The Particle-Wall, Normal-Impact Collision Coefficient in the Presence of a Liquid Film,” ASME Paper No. 90-GT-168.
Kladas, D. D. , and Georgiou, D. P. , 1992, “ Turbine Cascade Optimization Against Particle Deposition,” ASME Paper No. 92-GT-345.
Kladas, D. D. , and Georgiou, D. P. , 1994, “ Turbine Cascade Losses in the Presence of Progressive Particle Deposition,” ASME Paper No. 94-GT-195.
Kladas, D. D. , and Georgiou, D. P. , 1990, “ Influence of Cascade Parameters on the Deposition of Small Particles,” ASME Paper No. 90-GT-382.
Ahluwalia, R. K. , Im, K. H. , Chuang, C. F. , and Hajduk, J. C. , 1986, “ Particle and Vapor Deposition in Coal-Fired Gas Turbines,” ASME Paper No. 86-GT-239.
Fackrell, J. E. , Brown, K. , and Young, J. B. , 1994, “ Modelling Particle Deposition in Gas Turbines Employed in Advanced Coal-Fired Systems,” ASME Paper No. 94-GT-467.
Nagarajan, R. , and Anderson, R. J. , 1988, “ Effect of Coal Constituents on the Liquid-Assisted Capture of Impacting Ash Particles in Direct Coal-Fired Gas Turbines,” ASME Paper No. 88-GT-192.
Sreedharan, S. S. , and Tafti, D. K. , 2010, “ Composition Dependent Model for the Prediction of Syngas Ash Deposition With Application to a Leading Edge Turbine Vane,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-23655.
Birello, F. , Borello, D. , Venturini, P. , and Rispoli, F. , 2013, “ Modelling of Deposit Mechanisms Around the Stator of a Gas Turbine,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-95688.
Casaday, B. , Prenter, R. , Bonilla, C. , Lawrence, M. , Clum, C. , Ameri, A. , and Bons, J. P. , 2013, “ Deposition With Hot Streaks in an Uncooled Turbine Vane Passage,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-95108.
Borello, D. , D'Angeli, L. , Salvagni, A. , Venturini, P. , and Rispoli, F. , 2014, “ Study of Particles Deposition in Gas Turbine Blades in Presence of Film Cooling,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-26250.
Prenter, R. , Whitaker, S. M. , Ameri, A. , and Bons, J. P. , 2014, “ The Effects of Slot Film Cooling on Deposition on a Nozzle Guide Vane,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-27171.
Zagnoli, D. , Prenter, R. , Ameri, A. , and Bons, J. P. , 2015, “ Numerical Study of Deposition in a Full Turbine Stage Using Steady and Unsteady Methods,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-43613.
Barker, B. , Casady, P. , Shankara, P. , Ameri, A. , and Bons, J. P. , 2011, “ Coal Ash Deposition on Nozzle Guide Vanes: Part II—Computational Modeling,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-46660.
Singh, S. , and Tafti, D. , 2015, “ Prediction of Sand Deposition in a Two-Pass Internal Cooling Duct,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-44103.
Singh, S. , and Tafti, D. , 2013, “ Predicting the Coefficient of Restitution for Particle Wall Collisions in Gas Turbine Components,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-95623.
Raj, R. , 1983, “ Deposition Results of a Transpiration Air-Cooled Turbine Vane Cascade in a Contaminated Gas Stream,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 105(4), pp. 826–833.
Raj, R. , and Moskowitz, S. , 1984, “ Experimental Studies of Deposition by Electrostatic Charge on Turbine Blades,” ASME Paper No. 84-GT-159.
Wenglarz, R. A. , and Fox, R. G., Jr ., 1989, “ Physical Aspects of Deposition From Coal Water Fuels Under Gas Turbine Conditions,” ASME Paper No. 89-GT-206.
Wenglarz, R. A. , and Fox, R. G., Jr ., 1989, “ Chemical Aspects of Deposition/Corrosion From Coal–Water Fuels Under Gas Turbine Conditions,” ASME Paper No. 89-GT-207.
Lawson, S. A. , and Thole, K. A. , 2009, “ The Effects of Simulated Particle Deposition on Film Cooling,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59109.
Cowan, J. B. , Tafti, D. K. , and Kohli, A. , 2010, “ Investigation of Sand Particle Deposition and Erosion Within a Short Pin Fin Array,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-22362.
Lawson, T. B. , and Thole, K. A. , 2010, “ Simulations of Multi-Phase Particle Deposition on Endwall Film-Cooling,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-22376.
Wood, E. J. , Ng, W. F. , Vandsburger, U. , and LePera, S. , 2010, “ Simulated Syngas Ash Deposits a Flat Plate Using Teflon and PVC Particles,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-22445.
Laycock, R. G. , and Fletcher, T. H. , 2011, “ Time-Dependent Deposition Characteristics of Fine Coal Flyash in a Laboratory Gas Turbine Environment,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-46563.
Webb, J. , Casaday, B. , Barker, B. , Bons, J. P. , Gledhill, A. D. , and Padture, N. P. , 2011, “ Coal Ash Deposition on Nozzle Guide Vanes: Part I—Experimental Characteristics of Four Coal Ash Types,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-45894.
Ahluwalia, R. K. , Im, K. H. , and Wenglarz, R. A. , 1989, “ Flyash Adhesion in Simulated Coal-Fired Gas Turbine Environment,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 111(4), pp. 672–678.
Cohn, A. , 1982, “ Effect of Gas and Metal Temperatures on Gas Turbine Deposition,” ASME Paper No. 82-JPGC-GT-4.
Wenglarz, R. A. , and Cohn, A. , 1983, “ Turbine Deposition Evaluations Using Simplified Tests,” ASME Paper No. 83-GT-115.
Carpenter, L. K. , Crouse, F. W., Jr. , and Halow, J. S. , 1985, “ Coal-Fueled Turbines: Deposition Research,” ASME Paper No. 85-GT-213.
Dunn, M. G. , Padova, C. , Moeller, J. E. , and Adams, R. M. , 1987, “ Performance Deterioration of a Turbofan and a Turbojet Engine Upon Exposure to a Dust Environment,” ASME J. Gas Eng. Turbines Power, 109(3), pp. 336–343.
Kimura, S. G. , Spiro, C. L. , and Chen, C. C. , 1987, “ Combustion and Deposition in Coal-Fired Turbines,” ASME J. Gas Eng. Turbines Power, 109(3), pp. 219–324.
Spiro, C. L. , Kimura, S. G. , and Chen, C. C. , 1987, “ Ash Behavior During Combustion and Deposition in Coal-Fueled Gas Turbines,” ASME J. Gas Eng. Turbines Power, 109(3), pp. 325–330.
Wenglarz, R. A. , 1987, “ Turbine Disposition, Erosion and Corrosion Evaluations Using a Simplified Test Approach,” ASME Paper No. 87-GT-214.
Wenglarz, R. A. , 1987, “ Direct Coal-Fueled Combustion Turbines,” ASME Paper No. 87-GT-269.
Wenglarz, R. A. , 1991, “ An Approach for Evaluation of Gas Turbine Deposition,” ASME Paper No. 91-GT-214.
Chin, J. S. , and Lefebvre, A. H. , 1992, “ Influence of Flow Conditions on Deposits From Heated Hydrocarbon Fuels,” ASME Paper No. 92-GT-114.
Kim, J. , Dunn, M. G. , Baran, A. J. , Wade, D. P. , and Tremba, E. L. , 1992, “ Deposition of Volcanic Materials in the Hot Sections of Two Gas Turbine Engines,” ASME Paper No. 92-GT-219.
Dunn, M. G. , Baran, A. J. , and Miatech, J. , 1994, “ Operation of Gas Turbine Engines in Volcanic Ash Clouds,” ASME Paper No. 94-GT-170.
Jensen, J. W. , Squire, S. W. , Bons, J. P. , and Fletcher, T. H. , 2004, “ Simulated Land-Based Turbine Deposits Generated in an Accelerated Deposition Facility,” ASME Paper No. GT2004-53324.
Bons, J. P. , Crosby, J. , Wammack, J. E. , Bentley, B. I. , and Fletcher, T. H. , 2005, “ High Pressure Turbine Deposition in Land Based Gas Turbines From Various Synfuels,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68479.
Bons, J. P. , Wammack, J. E. , Crosby, J. , Fletcher, D. , and Fletcher, T. H. , 2006, “ Evolution of Surface Deposits on a High Pressure Turbine Blade, Part I: Convective Heat Transfer,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-91257.
Wammack, J. E. , Crosby, J. , Fletcher, D. , Bons, J. P. , and Fletcher, T. H. , 2006, “ Evolution of Surface Deposits on a High Pressure Turbine Blade, Part I: Physical Characteristics,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-91246.
Crosby, J. M. , Lewis, S. , Bons, J. P. , Ai, W. , and Fletcher, T. H. , 2007, “ Effects of Particle Size, Gas Temperature, and Metal Temperature on High Pressure Turbine Deposition in Land Based Gas Turbines From Various Synfuels,” ASME Paper No. GT2007-27531.
Ai, W. , Murray, N. , Fletcher, T. H. , Harding, S. , Lewis, S. , and Bons, J. P. , 2008, “ Deposition Near Film Cooling Holes on a High Pressure Turbine Vane,” ASME Paper No. GT2008-50901.
Ai, W. , Laycock, R. G. , Rappleye, D. S. , Fletcher, T. H. , and Bons, J. P. , 2009, “ Effect of Particle Size and Trench Configuration on Deposition from Fine Coal Flyash Near Film Cooling Holes,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59571.
Smith, C. , Barker, B. , Clum, C. , and Bons, J. P. , 2010, “ Deposition in a Turbine Cascade With Combusting Flow,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-22855.
Whitaker, S. M. , Prenter, R. , and Bons, J. P. , 2014, “ The Effect of Free-Stream Turbulence on Deposition for Nozzle Guide Vanes,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-27168.
Laycock, R. , and Fletcher, T. H. , 2015, “ Independent Effects of Surface and Gas Temperature on Coal Flyash Deposition in Gas Turbines at Temperatures up to 1400 °C,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-43575.
Bultzo, C. , 1980, “ Some Unique Gas Turbine Problems,” ASME Paper No. 80-GT-179.
Syverud, E. , Brekke, O. , and Bakken, L. E. , 2005, “ Axial Compressor Deterioration Caused by Saltwater Ingestion,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68701.
Brekke, O. , Bakken, L. E. , and Syverud, E. , 2009, “ Compressor Fouling in Gas Turbines Offshore: Composition and Sources From Site Data,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59203.
Tabakoff, W. , Hamed, A. , and Hussein, M. F. , 1972, “ Experimental Investigation of Gas-Particle Flow Trajectories and Velocities in an Axial Flow Turbine Stage,” ASME Paper No. 72-GT-57.
Agengiiturk, M. , and Sverdrup, E. F. , 1981, “ A Theory for Fine Particle Deposition in 2-D Boundary Layer Flows and Application to Gas Turbines,” ASME Paper No. 81-GT-54.
Suman, A. , Kurz, R. , Aldi, N. , Morini, M. , Brun, K. , Pinelli, M. , and Spina, P. R. , 2014, “ Quantitative CFD Analyses of Particle Deposition on an Axial Compressor Blade, Part I: Particle Zones Impact,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-25282.
Suman, A. , Morini, M. , Kurz, R. , Aldi, N. , Brun, K. , Pinelli, M. , and Spina, P. R. , 2014, “ Quantitative CFD Analyses of Particle Deposition on an Axial Compressor Blade, Part II: Impact Kinematics and Particle Sticking Analysis,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-25473.
Suman, A. , Kurz, R. , Aldi, N. , Morini, M. , Brun, K. , Pinelli, M. , and Spina, P. R. , 2015, “ Quantitative CFD Analyses of Particle Deposition on a Subsonic Axial Compressor Blade,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-42685.
Suman, A. , Morini, M. , Kurz, R. , Aldi, N. , Brun, K. , Pinelli, M. , and Spina, P. R. , 2015, “ Estimation of the Particle Deposition on a Transonic Axial Compressor Blade,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-42689.
Hanachi, H. , Liu, J. , Banerjee, A. , and Chen, Y. , 2016, “ Prediction of Compressor Fouling Rate Under Time Varying Operating Conditions,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-56242.
Qingcai, Y. , Li, S. , Cao, Y. , and Zhao, N. , 2016, “ Full and Part-Load Performance Deterioration Analysis of Industrial Three-Shaft Gas Turbine Based on Genetic Algorithm,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-57120.
Qui, R. , Ju, Y. , Wang, Y. , and Zhang, C. , 2016, “ Flow Analysis and Uncertainty Quantification of a 2D Compressor Cascade With Dirty Blades,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-56915.
Roumeliotis, I. , Aretakis, N. , and Alexiou, A. , 2016, “ Industrial Gas Turbine Health and Performance Assessment With Field Data,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-57722.
Kurz, R. , Musgrove, G. , and Brun, K. , 2016, “ Experimental Evaluation of Compressor Blade Fouling,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-56027.
Suman, A. , Morini, M. , Kurz, R. , Aldi, N. , Brun, K. , Pinelli, M. , and Spina, P. R. , 2016, “ Estimation of the Particle Deposition on a Subsonic Axial Compressor Blade,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-57340.
Aldi, N. , Morini, M. , Pinelli, M. , Spina, P. R. , and Suman, A. , 2016, “ An Innovative Method for the Evaluation of Particle Deposition Accounting for the Rotor/Stator Interaction,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-57803.
Saxena, S. , Jothiprasad, G. , Bourassa, C. , and Pritchard, B. , 2016, “ Numerical Simulation of Particulates in Multi-Stage Axial Compressors,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-57917.
Borello, D. , Cardillo, L. , Corsini, A. , Delibra, G. , Rispoli, F. , Salvagni, A. , Sheard, A. G. , and Venturini, P. , 2016, “ Modelling of Particle Transport, Erosion and Deposition in Power Plant Gas Paths,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-57984.
Madsen, S. , and Bakken, L. E. , 2016, “ Gas Turbine Operation Offshore; Increased Operating Interval and Higher Engine Performance Through Optimized Intake Air Filter System,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-56066.
Luan, Y. , Ni, Y. , Liu, H. , Bu, S. , and Sun, H. , 2016, “ Investigation of Performance of High Velocity Air Intake Wave-Plate Separators for Marine Gas Turbines,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-56220.
Schirmeister, U. , and Mohr, F. , 2016, “ Impact of Enhanced GT Air Filtration on Power Output and Compressor Efficiency Degradation,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-56292.
Casari, N. , Pinelli, M. , Suman, A. , di Mare, L. , and Montomoli, F. , 2016, “ An Energy Based Fouling Model for Gas Turbines: EBFOG,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-58044.
Bons, J. P. , Prenter, R. , and Whitaker, S. , 2016, “ A Simple Physics-Based Model for Particle Rebound and Deposition in Turbomachinery,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-56697.
Prenter, R. , Ameri, A. , and Bons, J. P. , 2016, “ Computational Simulation of Deposition in a Cooled High-Pressure Turbine Stage With Hot Streaks,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-57815.
Agati, G. , Borello, D. , Rispoli, F. , and Venturini, P. , 2016, “ An Innovative Approach to Model Temperature Influence on Particle Deposition in Gas Turbines,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-57997.
Forsyth, P. , Gillespie, D. R. H. , McGilvray, M. M. , and Galoul, V. , 2016, “ Validation and Assessment of the Continuous Random Walk Model for Particle Deposition in Gas Turbine Engines,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-57332.
Boulanger, A. , Patel, H. , Hutchinson, J. , DeShong, W. , Xu, W. , Ng, W. , and Ekkad, S. , 2016, “ Preliminary Experimental Investigation of Initial Onset of Sand Deposition in the Turbine Section of Gas Turbines,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-56059.
Whitaker, S. M. , Peterson, B. , Miller, A. F. , and Bons, J. P. , 2016, “ The Effect of Particle Loading, Size, and Temperature on Deposition in a Vane Leading Edge Impingement Cooling Geometry,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-57413.
Lundgreen, R. , Sacco, C. , Prenter, R. , and Bons, J. P. , 2016, “ Temperature Effects on Nozzle Guide Vane Deposition in a New Turbine Cascade Rig,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-57560.
Wylie, S. , Bucknell, A. , Forsyth, P. , McGilvray, M. , and Gillespie, D. R. H. , 2016, “ Reduction in Flow Parameter Resulting From Volcanic Ash Deposition in Engine Representative Cooling Passages,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-57296.
Wang, X. Y. , Pu, J. , Yuan, R. M. , and Wang, J. H. , 2016, “ Combined Influence of Surface Deposition and Hole-Blockage on Film-Cooling Performances,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-56902.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Blade contamination: (a) oily deposits on axial compressor blades as a result of oil leakage on a large heavy duty gas turbine [4] and (b) salt deposits on compressor blades after 18,000 h [3]

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Fig. 2

Manufacturer state-of-the-art timeline

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Fig. 3

Inlet system temperature drop as a function of the air acceleration. The higher inlet velocity results in a reduction of the free stream air temperature. This may determine water condensation or ice. The air in the boundary layer immediately adjacent to any stationary surface has slowed to almost zero velocity and is restored to almost its initial static temperature (recovery factor lines) [15].

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Fig. 4

Washing operations timeline

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Fig. 5

Normalized output versus operating hours using heavy oil. This test was conducted for approximately one month (February) with periodic compressor washing and single turbine washing [49].

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Fig. 6

Gas turbine power output (measured at the propeller shaft by a torque meter) over a long period of sea trials, showing the effect of occasional water-spray cleaning [76]

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Fig. 7

Filtration systems timeline

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Fig. 8

Comparison between inertial and media filter efficiencies according to particle dimension. Media filters were added to the existing inertial separators [94].

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Fig. 10

Variation in salt level (parts per million by weight) as a function of distance from the surf. Data were taken during onshore winds of varying intensity [111].

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Fig. 9

(a) Inlet heating which would result in the generation of dry salt crystals as a function of relative ambient humidity and temperature, (b) salt content of maritime air (parts per million by weight) as a function of wind velocity. Several data were reported provided by different authors and locations: Blanchard and Syzdek (Windward shore of Oahu, Hawaii), GPU, General Public Utilities, now FirstEnergy Corporation (New Jersey shore), Jacobs (Seashore, La Jolla, CA), Junge (Round Hill, MA), Navsec (no data available), NGTE—National Gas Turbine Establishment, Woodcock 1950 (Lighthouse, FL), Woodcock 1953 (data taken from ship, Florida, Hawaii, and Australia) [111].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

(a) Dust particle distribution in a two-stage filtration system. The reduction in the weight percentage of contaminants is provided by the multiple stage filtration system. (b) The practice of filter system selection. The zones are: (1) high efficiency filters, (2) roll and mat type filters, (3) pulse and bag filters, (4) oil bath filters, (5) electrostatic filters, (6) inertial separators, and (7) wet separators. The selection has to be made beginning with the initial condition (air contaminant concentration and humidity) [129].

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Fig. 12

Dust separation in a pulse-jet self-cleaning filter. The reduction in the weight percentage of contaminants is provided by the self-cleaning type filter [130].

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Fig. 13

Gas turbine power penalty from different types of air cleaners (the 100% hp points would apply to the single shaft, or free turbine at full power) [92]

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Fig. 14

Pressure drop curve (Pa) at 4250 m3/h volume flow rate per filter element: (a) two-stage filter (classes F6 and F8), (b) three-stage filter (classes F6, F9, and H11) according to EN779:2002 and EN1822:2009 filter classifications [102]

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Fig. 15

Change in the saturation temperature at the compressor inlet. Tas is the static air temperature, Ts is the saturation air temperature, and φ is the relative humidity [129].

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Fig. 16

Particle deposition timeline

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Fig. 17

Axial compressor stator blading showing oily carbonaceous deposits [90]

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Fig. 18

Stator blade deposits [211]

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Fig. 19

Weight distribution of deposits on the convex and concave sides of the axial compressor blades: (a) rotor and (b)stator [57]

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Fig. 20

Blade samples with varying degrees of contamination. Blade 9 shows deposits with a dirt mixed with hydrocarbon; blades 10 and 13 show deposits located on the front portion of the blade and blade 14 shows the manual cleaned area where the deposits are not too sticky [67].

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Fig. 21

Different deposit patterns after visual inspection: (a) deposits after 5000 h with two off-line washes and F8-type filter, (b) deposits after 6500 h without washes and E10-type filter. The differences in the deposit patterns are located at the leading edge zones [105].

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Fig. 22

Salt deposits found after experimental tests with salt ingestion: (a) percentage distribution of deposits with respect to the total stator deposits on stator vanes, (b) salt deposits at the leading edge of the second-stage stator vanes (at 6.5× magnification). The hub is at the top in this image. The partial detachment of the salt deposits close to the hub is clearly visible [212].

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Fig. 23

(a) deposits on the leading edge of a first-stage rotor blade and (b) deposits on the inlet guide vanes [213]

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Fig. 24

Contaminant mass on the blade surface with filtration system. Contaminant mass flow rates were reported as a function of the blade side (pressure and suction), environmental condition (industrial spring, industrial winter, urban), and charge level of the electrostatic filters (optimal charge, OC and poor charge, PC). The environmental conditions are characterized by different contaminant concentration. Industrial spring is the most detrimental condition, while urban is characterized by lower levels of particle concentration [219].

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Fig. 25

Timeline showing the progress in the field of fouling contributions

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Fig. 26

Overall contributions in gas turbine fouling

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Fig. 27

Detailed subdivision of resources: operational experience, filtration system, and compressor deposition

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Fig. 28

Overall count of fouling contributors: (a) contributions devoted to the fouling issue, (b) overall ASME Turbo Expo contributions, and (c) affiliation of contributors involved in the study of fouling

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