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Research Papers

Laboratory Infrared Thermal Assessment of Laser-Sintered High-Pressure Nozzle Guide Vanes to Derisk Engine Design Programs

[+] Author and Article Information
Benjamin Kirollos

Osney Thermofluids Laboratory,
Department of Engineering Science,
University of Oxford,
Oxford OX2 0ES, UK
e-mail: ben.kirollos@eng.ox.ac.uk

Thomas Povey

Osney Thermofluids Laboratory,
Department of Engineering Science,
University of Oxford,
Oxford OX2 0ES, UK
e-mail: thomas.povey@eng.ox.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received July 26, 2016; final manuscript received August 26, 2016; published online January 18, 2017. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 139(4), 041009 (Jan 18, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: TURBO-16-1173; doi: 10.1115/1.4035074 History: Received July 26, 2016; Revised August 26, 2016

The continuing maturation of metal laser-sintering technology (direct metal laser sintering (DMLS)) presents the opportunity to derisk the engine design process by experimentally down-selecting high-pressure nozzle guide vane (HPNGV) cooling designs using laboratory tests of laser-sintered—instead of cast—parts to assess thermal performance. Such tests could be seen as supplementary to thermal-paint test engines, which are used during certification to validate cooling system designs. In this paper, we compare conventionally cast and laser-sintered titanium alloy parts in back-to-back experimental tests at engine-representative conditions over a range of coolant mass flow rates. Tests were performed in the University of Oxford Annular Sector Heat Transfer Facility. The thermal performance of the cast and laser-sintered parts—measured using new infrared processing techniques—is shown to be very similar, demonstrating the utility of laser-sintered parts for preliminary engine thermal assessments. We conclude that the methods reported in this paper are sufficiently mature to make assessments which could influence engine development programs.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
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Figures

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Fig. 1

HPNGV schematic (not to scale) from Ref. [3]

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Fig. 2

Laser-sintered vane pair dry assembly

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Fig. 3

Laser-sintered vane pair assembly, glued and painted

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Fig. 4

Per-row coolant capacity, normalized by total cast vane coolant capacity, at p0c/p0m  = 1.03

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Fig. 5

Two-dimensional unwrapped schematic of working section in the Sector Facility

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Fig. 6

Comparison of high-emissivity paints with rough/smooth TBC (microscope images)

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Fig. 7

Thermocouple temperature versus factory-calibrated black-body temperatures, for PS and SS. Black solid line is gradient of 1, intercept of 0.

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Fig. 8

Transmittance–emissivity product

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Fig. 9

Surrounding radiance during a nominal Sector Facility run

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Fig. 10

Gaussian weighting function for θ –  c regression for laser-sintered vane

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Fig. 11

SS and PS mainstream recovery ratio c for cast and laser-sintered vanes

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Fig. 12

Midspan mainstream recovery ratio distribution at 8.9% m˙cT0c/m˙mT0m

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Fig. 13

SS and PS overall cooling effectiveness θ for cast and laser-sintered vanes, normalized by maximum cast vane overall cooling effectiveness

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Fig. 14

Midspan overall cooling effectiveness at 8.9% m˙cT0c/m˙mT0m, normalized by the maximum cast vane overall cooling effectiveness

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Fig. 15

Overall cooling effectiveness at −78% S.D. and 8.9% m˙cT0c/m˙mT0m, normalized by maximum cast vane overall cooling effectiveness

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Fig. 16

Overall cooling effectiveness at 95% S.D. and 8.9% m˙cT0c/m˙mT0m, normalized by maximum cast vane overall cooling effectiveness

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Fig. 17

Overall cooling effectiveness at −3% S.D. and 8.9% m˙cT0c/m˙mT0m, normalized by maximum cast vane overall cooling effectiveness

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Fig. 18

Individual overall cooling effectiveness measurements (40+ experiments per vane) at 18 points on the vane, normalized by maximum cast vane overall cooling effectiveness

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